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Article

Automation System for the Flexible Sample Preparation for Quantification of Δ9-THC-D3, THC-OH and THC-COOH from Serum, Saliva and Urine

1
Institute of Automation, Faculty of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Rostock, 18119 Rostock, Germany
2
Beckman Coulter Life Sciences, Indianapolis, IN 46268, USA
3
Center for Life Science Automation, University of Rostock, 18119 Rostock, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Qi-Huang Zheng
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2838; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062838
Received: 14 February 2022 / Revised: 8 March 2022 / Accepted: 9 March 2022 / Published: 10 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics in Life Science Automation)
In the life sciences, automation solutions are primarily established in the field of drug discovery. However, there is also an increasing need for automated solutions in the field of medical diagnostics, e.g., for the determination of vitamins, medication or drug abuse. While the actual metrological determination is highly automated today, the necessary sample preparation processes are still mainly carried out manually. In the laboratory, flexible solutions are required that can be used to determine different target substances in different matrices. A suitable system based on an automated liquid handler was implemented. It has been tested and validated for the determination of three cannabinoid metabolites in blood, urine and saliva. To extract Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-D3 (Δ9-THC-D3), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) from serum, urine and saliva both rapidly and cost-effectively, three sample preparation methods automated with a liquid handling robot are presented in this article, the basic framework of which is an identical SPE method so that they can be quickly exchanged against each other when the matrix is changed. If necessary, the three matrices could also be prepared in parallel. For the sensitive detection of analytes, protein precipitation is used when preparing serum before SPE and basic hydrolysis is used for urine to cleave the glucuronide conjugate. Recoveries of developed methods are >77%. Coefficients of variation are <4%. LODs are below 1 ng/mL and a comparison with the manual process shows a significant cost reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: automation; liquid handling; sample preparation; biological matrices; micro solid-phase extraction; SPE; cannabinoid determination; LC-MS; cost reduction automation; liquid handling; sample preparation; biological matrices; micro solid-phase extraction; SPE; cannabinoid determination; LC-MS; cost reduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bach, A.; Fleischer, H.; Wijayawardena, B.; Thurow, K. Automation System for the Flexible Sample Preparation for Quantification of Δ9-THC-D3, THC-OH and THC-COOH from Serum, Saliva and Urine. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 2838. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062838

AMA Style

Bach A, Fleischer H, Wijayawardena B, Thurow K. Automation System for the Flexible Sample Preparation for Quantification of Δ9-THC-D3, THC-OH and THC-COOH from Serum, Saliva and Urine. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(6):2838. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062838

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bach, Anna, Heidi Fleischer, Bhagya Wijayawardena, and Kerstin Thurow. 2022. "Automation System for the Flexible Sample Preparation for Quantification of Δ9-THC-D3, THC-OH and THC-COOH from Serum, Saliva and Urine" Applied Sciences 12, no. 6: 2838. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062838

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