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Article

Heat Transfer Analysis and Effects of (Silver and Gold) Nanoparticles on Blood Flow Inside Arterial Stenosis

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Department of Mathematics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 960, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Ardahan University, Ardahan 75002, Turkey
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Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Oana Gherasim and Francesca Scargiali
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031601
Received: 14 December 2021 / Revised: 19 January 2022 / Accepted: 28 January 2022 / Published: 2 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends of Silver Nanoparticles in Biomedicine)
The current investigation was based on a simulation employing CFD in COMSOL Multiphysics. The base fluid that was used in this simulation was blood. The flow was considered as a laminar, unsteady and incompressible Newtonian fluid, and the Newtonian nature of blood is acceptable at high shear rate. The behavior of blood flow was analyzed with the objective of obtaining pressure, temperature and velocity effects through an arterial stenosis. Two types of nanoparticles were used in this work: silver (Ag) and gold (Au). The equations of mass, momentum and energy were solved by utilizing the CFD technique. A fine element size mesh was generated through COMSOL. The results of this analysis show that velocity changes through confined parts of the artery, the velocity in a diseased region is higher and the velocity decreases before and after the stenotic region. In the heat transfer feature, the upper and lower boundary temperature was set to 24.85 °C and 27.35 °C, respectively. The nanoparticles affected the physical properties of blood, such as thermal conductivity, density, dynamic viscosity and specific heat. The addition of gold and silver nanoparticles prevented overheating because both nanoparticles have a high thermal conductivity, which has a principal role in dissipating temperature quickly. Nusselt number variations were also calculated and the results show that the curve decreases inside the stenosis. It could be concluded that the streamlines show abnormal behavior and recirculation occurs just after the stenosed area at t = 0.7 s and 1 s. These results will help greatly in the treatment of stenosed arteries. View Full-Text
Keywords: Newtonian fluid; unsteady; blood flow; nanoparticles (silver and gold); CFD; stenosed artery Newtonian fluid; unsteady; blood flow; nanoparticles (silver and gold); CFD; stenosed artery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussain, A.; Sarwar, L.; Rehman, A.; Akbar, S.; Gamaoun, F.; Coban, H.H.; Almaliki, A.H.; Alqurashi, M.S. Heat Transfer Analysis and Effects of (Silver and Gold) Nanoparticles on Blood Flow Inside Arterial Stenosis. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 1601. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031601

AMA Style

Hussain A, Sarwar L, Rehman A, Akbar S, Gamaoun F, Coban HH, Almaliki AH, Alqurashi MS. Heat Transfer Analysis and Effects of (Silver and Gold) Nanoparticles on Blood Flow Inside Arterial Stenosis. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(3):1601. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031601

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hussain, Azad, Lubna Sarwar, Aysha Rehman, Sobia Akbar, Fehmi Gamaoun, Hasan H. Coban, Abdulrazak H. Almaliki, and Maram S. Alqurashi. 2022. "Heat Transfer Analysis and Effects of (Silver and Gold) Nanoparticles on Blood Flow Inside Arterial Stenosis" Applied Sciences 12, no. 3: 1601. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031601

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