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Article

A Low-Cost Global Navigation Satellite System Positioning Accuracy Assessment Method for Agricultural Machinery

Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 1, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Academic Editors: Tadeusz Juliszewski, Sławomir Kurpaska and Paweł Kiełbasa
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020693
Received: 17 December 2021 / Revised: 4 January 2022 / Accepted: 9 January 2022 / Published: 11 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering of Smart Agriculture)
The high-precision positioning and navigation of agricultural machinery represent a backbone for precision agriculture, while its worldwide implementation is in rapid growth. Previous studies improved low-cost global navigation satellite system (GNSS) hardware solutions and fused GNSS data with complementary sources, but there is still no affordable and flexible framework for positioning accuracy assessment of agricultural machinery. Such a low-cost method was proposed in this study, simulating the actual movement of the agricultural machinery during agrotechnical operations. Four of the most commonly used GNSS corrections in Croatia were evaluated in two repetitions: Croatian Positioning System (CROPOS), individual base station, Satellite-based Augmentation Systems (SBASs), and an absolute positioning method using a smartphone. CROPOS and base station produced the highest mean GNSS positioning accuracy of 2.4 and 2.9 cm, respectively, but both of these corrections produced lower accuracy than declared. All evaluated corrections produced significantly different median values in two repetitions, representing inconsistency of the positioning accuracy regarding field conditions. While the proposed method allowed flexible and effective application in the field, future studies will be directed towards the reduction of the operator’s subjective impact, mainly by implementing autosteering solutions in agricultural machinery. View Full-Text
Keywords: real-time kinematic (RTK); precision agriculture; ISO standard; global positioning system (GPS); GLONASS; agricultural tractor real-time kinematic (RTK); precision agriculture; ISO standard; global positioning system (GPS); GLONASS; agricultural tractor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Radočaj, D.; Plaščak, I.; Heffer, G.; Jurišić, M. A Low-Cost Global Navigation Satellite System Positioning Accuracy Assessment Method for Agricultural Machinery. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 693. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020693

AMA Style

Radočaj D, Plaščak I, Heffer G, Jurišić M. A Low-Cost Global Navigation Satellite System Positioning Accuracy Assessment Method for Agricultural Machinery. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(2):693. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020693

Chicago/Turabian Style

Radočaj, Dorijan, Ivan Plaščak, Goran Heffer, and Mladen Jurišić. 2022. "A Low-Cost Global Navigation Satellite System Positioning Accuracy Assessment Method for Agricultural Machinery" Applied Sciences 12, no. 2: 693. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020693

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