# Study on the Measurement of the On-Site Overvoltage and Internal Temperature Rise Simulation of the EMU Arrester

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Arrester Temperature Rise Test

#### 2.1. The Tested Sample

_{1mA}is 61.4 kV, the leakage current under 0.75 times of U

_{1mA}is 14 μA, the residual voltage of the lightning impulse current is 104.3 kV, and the power frequency reference voltage is 42.6 kV.

#### 2.2. Fluorescent Optical Fiber Temperature Measuring System

#### 2.3. Test Method and Procedure

- (1)
- The temperature rise test under continuous operation voltage. Before the test, the indoor ambient temperature was 25.8 °C. First, the 34 kV voltage was applied to the arrester for 3 h; then, the power was cut off and it was let to cool down to room temperature naturally; finally, the temperature changes in each channel were measured.
- (2)
- The temperature rise test under high-current impulse. The impulse current was generated with a 1200 kV impulse voltage generator, which is shown in Figure 4. First, each stage capacitor of the impulse voltage generator was charged in parallel; then, the trigger device sent out an ignition, and the steep impulse current through the arrester can reach 10 kA. The next impulse current test was carried out after an interval of 60 s, with 15 shocks in each group and an interval of 300 s between the two adjacent groups.

#### 2.4. Test Results and Analysis

#### 2.4.1. Temperature Rise Analysis under Continuous Operating Voltage

#### 2.4.2. Temperature Rise Analysis under High-Current Impulse

## 3. Field Overvoltage Waveform Acquisition and Statistics

#### 3.1. Field Overvoltage Waveform Acquisition

#### 3.2. Statistical Analysis of the Overvoltage Waveform

## 4. Simulation Research on the Temperature Distribution of the Arrester

#### 4.1. Simulation Model

Model Composition | Material | Relative Dielectric Constant | Conductivity/(S·m^{−1}) |
---|---|---|---|

Umbrella skirt, sheath | Silicone rubber | 2.3 | 1.0 × 10^{−8} |

The internal air gap of the arrester | Air | 1.0 | 1.0 × 10^{−12} |

Flange | Iron | 1.0 × 10^{6} | 1.1 × 10^{7} |

Spring locating block | Aluminum | 1.0 × 10^{6} | 3.8 × 10^{7} |

Valve plate | Zinc oxide | 420 | As shown in Table 3 |

Insulation cylinder | Epoxy resin | 4.0 | 1.0 × 10^{−8} |

Voltage/V | Current/A | Conductivity/(S·m^{−1}) |
---|---|---|

2.58 × 10^{4} | 3 × 10^{−7} | 1.6 × 10^{−9} |

4.08 × 10^{4} | 4.6 × 10^{−6} | 1.55 × 10^{−8} |

5.52 × 10^{4} | 9.01 × 10^{−5} | 1.25 × 10^{−7} |

6.25 × 10^{4} | 7.4 × 10^{−4} | 1.63 × 10^{−6} |

6.3 × 10^{4} | 1.01 × 10^{−3} | 2.21 × 10^{−6} |

8.39 × 10^{4} | 2.0 × 10^{3} | 3.28 |

1.01 × 10^{5} | 1.01 × 10^{4} | 32.46 |

#### 4.2. Calculation of the Nonlinear Conductivity of Zinc Oxide

#### 4.3. Electrothermal Coupling Calculation Method

#### 4.3.1. Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions

^{2}·K). When there is no or little air flow, the convective heat transfer coefficient is between 4~10 W/(m

^{2}·K). Therefore, the heat transfer coefficient is taken as 10 W/(m

^{2}·K) in the simulation.

#### 4.3.2. Meshing of the Simulation Model

#### 4.4. Electric Tree Defect Setting

#### 4.5. Validation of the Model

#### 4.6. The Temperature Characteristics of the Arrester under Typical Overvoltage

#### 4.6.1. Passing Section Overvoltage

#### 4.6.2. High-Harmonic Overvoltage

#### 4.6.3. Steep Impulse Overvoltage

#### 4.7. Influence of the Defective Valve Plate Number on the Temperature Distribution of the Arrester

#### 4.8. Influence of Air Velocity on the Temperature Distribution on the Arrester

_{u}is the mean Nusselt number of the fluid around a cylinder, R

_{e}is the Reynolds number, h is the convective heat transfer coefficient, d is the diameter of the arrester, λ is the thermal conductivity, u is the air velocity, v is the kinematic viscosity and P

_{r}is the Prandtl number. The values and simplified formulas of C, n and m are shown in Table 4.

^{−6}m

^{2}/s and the Prandtl number P

_{r}is 0.703. According to the simplified formula in Table 4 combined with the Zhukauskas formula, the convective heat transfer coefficient of airs with different velocities can be calculated, as shown in Table 5.

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- After working at a continuous operating voltage for 3 h, the maximum temperature of the arrester valve plate increases by 5.2 °C. In the impulse current experiment, the maximum temperature of the arrester increases by 97.6 °C. The valve plates near the two sides of the arrester dissipate heat faster and have a lower temperature. Applying multiple large currents continuously may cause harm to the roof arrester.
- (2)
- The simulation results showed that, under the action of passing section overvoltage and steep impulse overvoltage, the internal temperature of the normal arrester reached 36.57 °C and 241 °C, respectively, in a short time. Under the action of high-harmonic overvoltage, the temperature rise was only 0.2 °C. This indicated that the high-amplitude overvoltage may be the main reason for the heat of the arrester.
- (3)
- When the valve plate had electric tree defects, the internal temperature rise of the arrester was small under the action of high-harmonic overvoltage. Under the action of passing section overvoltage and steep impulse overvoltage, the temperature increases obviously with the number of defective valve plates, and the maximum temperature reaches 536 °C when the number of defective valve plates is 3.
- (4)
- With the increase in air velocity, the internal temperature of the arrester decreased slightly under the passing section overvoltage and steep impulse overvoltage, so the EMU running at high speed has little influence on the internal temperature rise of the arrester under the action of overvoltage.
- (5)
- The internal simulation temperature of the normal arrester and the defective arrester under the action of the steep impulse overvoltage was 8 times and 18 times that of the internal temperature of the arrester under the action of the power frequency overvoltage, respectively, which indicated that the roof overvoltage will not only accelerate the performance deterioration of the arrester but even lead to thermal collapse. The passing section overvoltage and steep impulse overvoltage have high amplitudes and many occurrences, so the roof overvoltage of the EMU is an important reason for the arrester burst.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 8.**Three typical overvoltage waveforms. (

**a**) Passing section overvoltage. (

**b**) High-harmonic overvoltage. (

**c**) Steep impulse overvoltage.

**Figure 16.**The current and temperature distributions of the arrester. (

**a**) Passing section overvoltage and current. (

**b**) Temperature variation of the arrester. (

**c**) Temperature distribution of the valve column.

**Figure 17.**The current and temperature distribution of the arrester. (

**a**) High-harmonic overvoltage and current. (

**b**) Temperature variation of the arrester. (

**c**) Temperature distribution of the valve column.

**Figure 18.**The current and temperature distribution of the arrester. (

**a**) Steep impulse overvoltage and current. (

**b**) Temperature variation of the arrester. (

**c**) Temperature distribution of the valve column.

**Figure 20.**The temperature distribution of the arrester under different air velocities. (

**a**) Passing section overvoltage. (

**b**) Steep impulse overvoltage.

Type | Overvoltage Amplitude Range (kV) | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

50–60 | 60–70 | 70–80 | 80–90 | >90 | |

Passing section overvoltage | 819 | 235 | 89 | 15 | 2 |

High-harmonic overvoltage | 71 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

Steep impulse overvoltage | 6 | 13 | 11 | 8 | 5 |

Condition | C | n | m | Simplified Formula |
---|---|---|---|---|

5 < R_{e} < 10^{3} | 0.5 | 0.5 | 0.38 | ${N}_{\mathrm{u}}=0.44{R}_{\mathrm{e}}^{0.5}$ |

10^{3} < R_{e} < 2 × 10^{5} | 0.26 | 0.6 | 0.38 | ${N}_{\mathrm{u}}=0.22{R}_{\mathrm{e}}^{0.5}$ |

2 × 10^{5} < R_{e} < 2 × 10^{6} | 0.023 | 0.8 | 0.37 | ${N}_{\mathrm{u}}=0.02{R}_{\mathrm{e}}^{0.5}$ |

The Air Velocity (km/h) | R_{e} | h (W/(m^{2}·K)) |
---|---|---|

50 | 1.1 × 10^{5} | 50.3 |

150 | 3.3 × 10^{5} | 112.2 |

250 | 5.5 × 10^{5} | 168.8 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, S.; Ou, Q.; Lei, S.; Liu, H.; Mao, S.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.; Lv, F.
Study on the Measurement of the On-Site Overvoltage and Internal Temperature Rise Simulation of the EMU Arrester. *Appl. Sci.* **2022**, *12*, 7925.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157925

**AMA Style**

Wang S, Ou Q, Lei S, Liu H, Mao S, Zhang Q, Liu J, Lv F.
Study on the Measurement of the On-Site Overvoltage and Internal Temperature Rise Simulation of the EMU Arrester. *Applied Sciences*. 2022; 12(15):7925.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157925

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Shenghui, Qi Ou, Shengfeng Lei, Huaqi Liu, Shuaitao Mao, Qizhe Zhang, Jian Liu, and Fangcheng Lv.
2022. "Study on the Measurement of the On-Site Overvoltage and Internal Temperature Rise Simulation of the EMU Arrester" *Applied Sciences* 12, no. 15: 7925.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157925