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Article

A Numerical Study of Sub-Millisecond Integrated Mix-and-Inject Microfluidic Devices for Sample Delivery at Synchrotron and XFELs

ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Department of Chemistry and Physics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Miguel R. Oliveira Panão and Giangiacomo Minak
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3404; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083404
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 3 April 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 10 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flows Modelling in Microfluidic Systems)
Microfluidic devices which integrate both rapid mixing and liquid jetting for sample delivery are an emerging solution for studying molecular dynamics via X-ray diffraction. Here we use finite element modelling to investigate the efficiency and time-resolution achievable using microfluidic mixers within the parameter range required for producing stable liquid jets. Three-dimensional simulations, validated by experimental data, are used to determine the velocity and concentration distribution within these devices. The results show that by adopting a serpentine geometry, it is possible to induce chaotic mixing, which effectively reduces the time required to achieve a homogeneous mixture for sample delivery. Further, we investigate the effect of flow rate and the mixer microchannel size on the mixing efficiency and minimum time required for complete mixing of the two solutions whilst maintaining a stable jet. In general, we find that the smaller the cross-sectional area of the mixer microchannel, the shorter the time needed to achieve homogeneous mixing for a given flow rate. The results of these simulations will form the basis for optimised designs enabling the study of molecular dynamics occurring on millisecond timescales using integrated mix-and-inject microfluidic devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidics; micro-jet; sub-millisecond mixing; simulation; sample delivery for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) microfluidics; micro-jet; sub-millisecond mixing; simulation; sample delivery for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hejazian, M.; Balaur, E.; Abbey, B. A Numerical Study of Sub-Millisecond Integrated Mix-and-Inject Microfluidic Devices for Sample Delivery at Synchrotron and XFELs. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3404. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083404

AMA Style

Hejazian M, Balaur E, Abbey B. A Numerical Study of Sub-Millisecond Integrated Mix-and-Inject Microfluidic Devices for Sample Delivery at Synchrotron and XFELs. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(8):3404. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083404

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hejazian, Majid, Eugeniu Balaur, and Brian Abbey. 2021. "A Numerical Study of Sub-Millisecond Integrated Mix-and-Inject Microfluidic Devices for Sample Delivery at Synchrotron and XFELs" Applied Sciences 11, no. 8: 3404. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083404

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