With the drastically increasing traffic in the last decades, crucial environmental problems have been caused, such as greenhouse gas emission and traffic noise pollution. These problems have adversely affected our life quality and health conditions. In this paper, modelling of traffic noise employing deep learning is investigated. The goal is to identify the best machine-learning model for predicting traffic noise from real-life traffic data with multivariate traffic features as input. An extensive study on recurrent neural network (RNN) is performed in this work for modelling time series traffic data, which was collected through an experimental campaign at an inner city roundabout, including both video traffic data and audio data. The preprocessing of the data, namely how to generate the appropriate input and output for deep learning model, is detailed in this paper. A selection of different architectures of RNN, such as many-to-one, many-to-many, encoder–decoder architectures, was investigated. Moreover, gated recurrent unit (GRU) and long short-term memory (LSTM) were further discussed. The results revealed that a multivariate bi-directional GRU model with many-to-many architecture achieved the best performance with both high accuracy and computation efficiency. The trained model could be promising for a future smart city concept; with the proposed model, real-time traffic noise predictions can be potentially feasible using only traffic data collected by different sensors in the city, thanks to the generated big data by smart cities. The forecast of excessive noise exposure can help the regulation and policy makers to make early decisions, in order to mitigate the noise level.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited