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Article

Preclinical Evaluation of an Innovative Bone Graft of Marine Origin for the Treatment of Critical-Sized Bone Defects in an Animal Model

1
CINTECX, New Materials Group, Campus de Vigo, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2
Traumatology and Orthopedic Surgery Unit, Hospital POVISA, 36211 Vigo, Spain
3
Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur), SERGAS-UVIGO, 36213 Vigo, Spain
4
Department Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
5
iBoneLab SL, Avenida da Coruña 500, 27003 Lugo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eva Martins
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052116
Received: 23 January 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends on Marine Biomaterials)
Autogenous cancellous bone graft is the current gold standard of treatment for the management of bone defects since it possesses the properties of osteoinduction, osteoconduction, and osteogenesis. Xenografts and synthetic grafts have been widely reported as available and low-cost alternatives, which retain good osteoconductive and mechanical properties. Given the rich biodiversity of ocean organisms, marine sources are of particular interest in the search for alternative bone grafts with enhanced functionalities. The purpose of this paper is to assess the biocompatibility of a marine-derived bone graft obtained from shark tooth, which is an environmentally sustainable and abundant raw material from fishing. This research presents the findings of a preclinical trial—following UNE-EN ISO 10993—that induced a critical-sized bone defect in a rabbit model and compared the results with a commercial bovine-derived bone graft. Evaluation by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis 12 weeks after implantation revealed good osseointegration, with no signs of inflammatory foreign body reactions, fibrosis, or necrosis in any of the cases. The shark tooth-derived bone graft yielded significantly higher new bone mineral density values (54 ± 6%) than the control (27 ± 8%). Moreover, the percentage of intersection values were much higher (86 ± 8%) than the bovine-derived bone graft (30 ± 1%) used as control. The area of occupancy by bone tissue in the test material (38 ± 5%) also gave higher values than the control (30 ± 6%). The role of physicochemical properties, biphasic structure, and composition on the stimulation of bone regeneration is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine bone graft; preclinical trial; calcium phosphate; osseointegration; biomaterial marine bone graft; preclinical trial; calcium phosphate; osseointegration; biomaterial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Otero-Pérez, R.; Permuy, M.; López-Senra, E.; López-Álvarez, M.; López-Peña, M.; Serra, J.; González-Cantalapiedra, A.; M. Muñoz, F.; González, P. Preclinical Evaluation of an Innovative Bone Graft of Marine Origin for the Treatment of Critical-Sized Bone Defects in an Animal Model. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 2116. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052116

AMA Style

Otero-Pérez R, Permuy M, López-Senra E, López-Álvarez M, López-Peña M, Serra J, González-Cantalapiedra A, M. Muñoz F, González P. Preclinical Evaluation of an Innovative Bone Graft of Marine Origin for the Treatment of Critical-Sized Bone Defects in an Animal Model. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(5):2116. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Otero-Pérez, Rafael, María Permuy, Estefanía López-Senra, Miriam López-Álvarez, Mónica López-Peña, Julia Serra, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra, Fernando M. Muñoz, and Pío González. 2021. "Preclinical Evaluation of an Innovative Bone Graft of Marine Origin for the Treatment of Critical-Sized Bone Defects in an Animal Model" Applied Sciences 11, no. 5: 2116. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052116

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