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Open AccessArticle

Embodied Energy Optimization of Buttressed Earth-Retaining Walls with Hybrid Simulated Annealing

1
Institute of Concrete Science and Technology (ICITECH), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 València, Spain
2
Escuela de Ingeniería en Construcción, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 2362807, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Neftali Nuñez
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041800
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 15 February 2021 / Published: 18 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Applied to Sustainable Development Goals)
The importance of construction in the consumption of natural resources is leading structural design professionals to create more efficient structure designs that reduce emissions as well as the energy consumed. This paper presents an automated process to obtain low embodied energy buttressed earth-retaining wall optimum designs. Two objective functions were considered to compare the difference between a cost optimization and an embodied energy optimization. To reach the best design for every optimization criterion, a tuning of the algorithm parameters was carried out. This study used a hybrid simulated optimization algorithm to obtain the values of the geometry, the concrete resistances, and the amounts of concrete and materials to obtain an optimum buttressed earth-retaining wall low embodied energy design. The relation between all the geometric variables and the wall height was obtained by adjusting the linear and parabolic functions. A relationship was found between the two optimization criteria, and it can be concluded that cost and energy optimization are linked. This allows us to state that a cost reduction of €1 has an associated energy consumption reduction of 4.54 kWh. To achieve a low embodied energy design, it is recommended to reduce the distance between buttresses with respect to economic optimization. This decrease allows a reduction in the reinforcing steel needed to resist stem bending. The difference between the results of the geometric variables of the foundation for the two-optimization objectives reveals hardly any variation between them. This work gives technicians some rules to get optimum cost and embodied energy design. Furthermore, it compares designs obtained through these two optimization objectives with traditional design recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: heuristic optimization; energy savings; sustainable construction; buttressed earth-retaining walls heuristic optimization; energy savings; sustainable construction; buttressed earth-retaining walls
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Muñoz, D.; Martí, J.V.; García, J.; Yepes, V. Embodied Energy Optimization of Buttressed Earth-Retaining Walls with Hybrid Simulated Annealing. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1800. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041800

AMA Style

Martínez-Muñoz D, Martí JV, García J, Yepes V. Embodied Energy Optimization of Buttressed Earth-Retaining Walls with Hybrid Simulated Annealing. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(4):1800. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez-Muñoz, David; Martí, José V.; García, José; Yepes, Víctor. 2021. "Embodied Energy Optimization of Buttressed Earth-Retaining Walls with Hybrid Simulated Annealing" Appl. Sci. 11, no. 4: 1800. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041800

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