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Article

Tangible VR Book: Exploring the Design Space of Marker-Based Tangible Interfaces for Virtual Reality

by 1,*,† and 2,†
1
Centre for Informatics and Systems of the University of Coimbra, Department of Informatics Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
2
Department of Informatics Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041367
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Solutions for Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications)
Tangible User Interface (TUI) represents a huge potential for Virtual Reality (VR) because tangibles can naturally provide rich haptic cues which are often missing in VR experiences that make use of standard controllers. We are particularly interested in implementing TUIs for smartphone-based VR, given the lower usage barrier and easy deployment. In order to keep the overall system simple and accessible, we have explored object detection through visual markers, using the smartphone’s camera. In order to help VR experience designers, in this work we present a design space for marker-based TUI for VR. We have mapped this design space by developing several marker-based tangible interaction prototypes and through a formative study with professionals with different backgrounds. We then instantiated the design space in a Tangible VR Book which we evaluate with remote user studies inspired by the vignette methodology. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; smartphone-based virtual reality; tangible user interface; tangible book virtual reality; smartphone-based virtual reality; tangible user interface; tangible book
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cardoso, J.C.S.; Ribeiro, J.M. Tangible VR Book: Exploring the Design Space of Marker-Based Tangible Interfaces for Virtual Reality. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1367. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041367

AMA Style

Cardoso JCS, Ribeiro JM. Tangible VR Book: Exploring the Design Space of Marker-Based Tangible Interfaces for Virtual Reality. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(4):1367. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cardoso, Jorge C.S.; Ribeiro, Jorge M. 2021. "Tangible VR Book: Exploring the Design Space of Marker-Based Tangible Interfaces for Virtual Reality" Appl. Sci. 11, no. 4: 1367. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041367

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