Integrating Mobile Thermal Energy Storage (M-TES) in the City of Surrey’s District Energy Network: A Techno-Economic Analysis
2.1. M-TES Demand Estimation
2.2. Industrial Waste Heat Identification
3.1. Levelized Cost Model
3.2. Techno-Economic Analysis (TEA)
- With a fixed schedule of six trips/day and 360 days/year, an M-TES truck with a capacity of 10 tonnes and system level ESD of 0.7 MJ/kg can meet up to 7% of the SCE network anticipated demand for 2022.
- The levelized cost of energy of M-TES increases with distance and decreases with the energy storage density of the selected solution.
- The most efficient configuration of M-TES is achieved with the highest ESD and shortest distance between the industrial heat source and the DEN.
- Out of the three truck modes to be used with M-TES, the electric vehicles (EV) truck is slightly more competitive than the renewable natural gas (RNG) truck in BC. However, both RNG and electric trucks are better than diesel trucks in cost and GHG-avoided totals.
- As a result, when using RNG or electric trucks to move the tank between the IWH and DEN, M-TES is competitive with a distance range of 15–50 km.
- Diesel trucks are not efficient if the distance is more than 30 km.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|CC||Capital Cost ($)|
|BAU||Business as usual|
|D||Distance between source and sink (km)|
|DEN||District Energy Network|
|ESD||Energy storage density (MJ/kg)|
|GHGTransportation||Total GHG emitted from the system (tCO2e/ year)|
|IWH||Industrial waste heat|
|LCM||Levelized cost of M-TES ($/MWh)|
|M-TES||Mobile thermal energy storage|
|N||Number of trips per day|
|ODPY||Number of operational days per year|
|OTC||Other transportation cost (insurance + maintenance + Driver rate) ($/km)|
|PCM||Phase Change Materials|
|RNGV||Renewable natural gas-powered vehicles|
|SCE||Surrey City Energy|
|SLT||System lifetime (years)|
|TC||Total Transportation Cost ($)|
|TH||Total heat provided by the system per year|
|TW||Total material weight (kg)|
|ηFuel||Fuel efficiency in (L/100 km) or (kWh/100 km)|
|ηSystem||M-TES thermal efficiency|
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|Annual energy demand, MWh||56,600||70,000||130,300|
|M-TES 7% target, MWh||3900||4900||9100|
|Transportation Mode Options||RNG Truck|
|Distance (DEN to IWH)||D1 (15 km)|
D2 (30 km)
D3 (45 km)
|System level ESD||0.1 MJ/kg–2.0 MJ/kg|
|Number of trips/day|
Number of days/year
|Other low carbon heat sources. Cost is based on Surrey DEN given information||Solar, Sewer heat recovery, RNG, Biomass, Electric boiler|
|Surrey DEN Target GHG Intensity||0.07 tCO2e/MWh|
|Natural gas boiler efficiency, ηNG|
M-TES system efficiency, ηM-TES
|Natural gas fuel GHG intensity, GHGNG||180 kgCO2e/MWh|
|Constant heat supply from a vertical geothermal exchange system attached to DEN||1100 MWh|
|Emission factors and transportation methodologies and guides||From [30,31]|
|System level energy storage density of M-TES||(0.1 MJ/kg–2 MJ/kg)|
|M-TES system lifetime||12 years|
|Tank size/trip||10,000 kg|
|RNG Truck||EV Truck||Diesel Truck|
|System capital cost estimate CAD$||470,000||570,000||400,000|
|Fuel price (CAD$/L diesel equivalent)||0.47 *||0.32||1.4|
|Other transportation cost (OTC), e.g., insurance + maintenance + driver rate (CAD$/km) [32,33]||1.4||1.4||1.4|
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Shehadeh, M.; Kwok, E.; Owen, J.; Bahrami, M. Integrating Mobile Thermal Energy Storage (M-TES) in the City of Surrey’s District Energy Network: A Techno-Economic Analysis. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1279. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031279
Shehadeh M, Kwok E, Owen J, Bahrami M. Integrating Mobile Thermal Energy Storage (M-TES) in the City of Surrey’s District Energy Network: A Techno-Economic Analysis. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(3):1279. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031279Chicago/Turabian Style
Shehadeh, Maha, Emily Kwok, Jason Owen, and Majid Bahrami. 2021. "Integrating Mobile Thermal Energy Storage (M-TES) in the City of Surrey’s District Energy Network: A Techno-Economic Analysis" Applied Sciences 11, no. 3: 1279. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031279