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Article

Amoxicillin in Water: Insights into Relative Reactivity, Byproduct Formation, and Toxicological Interactions during Chlorination

1
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, 80126 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80126 Naples, Italy
3
Associazione Italiana per la Promozione delle Ricerche su Ambiente e Salute umana, 82030 Dugenta, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panagiotis G. Asteris
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031076
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
In recent years, many studies have highlighted the consistent finding of amoxicillin in waters destined for wastewater treatment plants, in addition to superficial waters of rivers and lakes in both Europe and North America. In this paper, the amoxicillin degradation pathway was investigated by simulating the chlorination process normally used in a wastewater treatment plant to reduce similar emerging pollutants at three different pH values. The structures of 16 isolated degradation byproducts (DPs), one of which was isolated for the first time, were separated on a C-18 column via a gradient HPLC method. Combining mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we then compared commercial standards and justified a proposed formation mechanism beginning from the parent drug. Microbial growth inhibition bioassays with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were performed to determine the potential loss of antibacterial activity in isolated degradation byproducts. An increase of antibacterial activity in the DPs was observed compared to the parent compound. View Full-Text
Keywords: amoxicillin; chlorination; hypochlorite; degradation by-products; water treatment; acute toxicity test; Daphnia magna amoxicillin; chlorination; hypochlorite; degradation by-products; water treatment; acute toxicity test; Daphnia magna
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siciliano, A.; Guida, M.; Libralato, G.; Saviano, L.; Luongo, G.; Previtera, L.; Di Fabio, G.; Zarrelli, A. Amoxicillin in Water: Insights into Relative Reactivity, Byproduct Formation, and Toxicological Interactions during Chlorination. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1076. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031076

AMA Style

Siciliano A, Guida M, Libralato G, Saviano L, Luongo G, Previtera L, Di Fabio G, Zarrelli A. Amoxicillin in Water: Insights into Relative Reactivity, Byproduct Formation, and Toxicological Interactions during Chlorination. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(3):1076. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031076

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siciliano, Antonietta, Marco Guida, Giovanni Libralato, Lorenzo Saviano, Giovanni Luongo, Lucio Previtera, Giovanni Di Fabio, and Armando Zarrelli. 2021. "Amoxicillin in Water: Insights into Relative Reactivity, Byproduct Formation, and Toxicological Interactions during Chlorination" Applied Sciences 11, no. 3: 1076. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031076

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