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Article

Field Quantification of Ammonia Emission following Fertilization of Golf Course Turfgrass in Sub/Urban Areas

Department of Plant Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Maggos and Dikaia E. Saraga
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11644; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411644
Received: 20 November 2021 / Revised: 5 December 2021 / Accepted: 6 December 2021 / Published: 8 December 2021
Low cost and favorable handling characteristics make urea (46-0-0) a leading nitrogen source for frequent, foliar N fertilization of golf course putting greens in season. Yet few field investigations of resulting NH3 volatilization from putting greens have been directed. Meanwhile, NH3 emissions degrade air and surface water quality. Our objective was to quantify NH3 volatilization following practical, low-N rate, and foliar application of commercial urea-N fertilizers. Over the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons in University Park, PA, USA, an industrial vacuum pump, H3BO3 scrubbing flasks, and sixteen dynamic flux chambers were employed in four unique experiments to measure NH3 volatilization from creeping bentgrass putting greens (Agrostis stolonifera L. ‘Penn G2’) in the 24 h period ensuing foliar application of urea based-N at a 7.32 or 9.76 kg/ha rate. Simultaneous and replicated flux chamber trapping efficiency trials showing 35% mean NH3 recovery were used to adjust NH3 volatilization rates from treated plots. Under the duration and conditions described, 3.1 to 8.0% of conventional urea N volatilized from the putting greens as NH3. Conversely, 0.7 to 1.1% of methylol urea liquid fertilizer (60% short-chain methylene urea) or 0.7 to 2.2% of urea complimented with dicyandiamide (DCD) and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) volatilized as NH3. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological inhibitor; creeping bentgrass; dicyandiamide (DCD); flux chamber; methylene urea; N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT); nitrogen; nutrient fate; putting green; urea biological inhibitor; creeping bentgrass; dicyandiamide (DCD); flux chamber; methylene urea; N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT); nitrogen; nutrient fate; putting green; urea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leiby, N.L.; Schlossberg, M.J. Field Quantification of Ammonia Emission following Fertilization of Golf Course Turfgrass in Sub/Urban Areas. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 11644. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411644

AMA Style

Leiby NL, Schlossberg MJ. Field Quantification of Ammonia Emission following Fertilization of Golf Course Turfgrass in Sub/Urban Areas. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(24):11644. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411644

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leiby, Nathaniel L., and Maxim J. Schlossberg. 2021. "Field Quantification of Ammonia Emission following Fertilization of Golf Course Turfgrass in Sub/Urban Areas" Applied Sciences 11, no. 24: 11644. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411644

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