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An Insight into Probiotics Bio-Route: Translocation from the Mother’s Gut to the Mammary Gland
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New Insights in Oral Health and Diets

Maria Antoniadou
1 and
Theodoros Varzakas
Dental School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Thivon 2, Goudi, 11527 Athens, Greece
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Antikalamos, 24100 Kalamata, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11397;
Submission received: 12 November 2021 / Accepted: 29 November 2021 / Published: 1 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Oral Health and Diets)
The aim of this Special Issue is to bring the most updated information on the innovative field of oral and general health coaching and nutritional education strategies for better oral and general health. In this direction we have seven published papers.
Voidarou et al. [1] deals with the antibacterial effect of different Greek honeys showing an outperformance of the antibacterial activity compared to manuka honey against all tested bacteria. This performance was due to the hydrogen peroxide as well peptides and phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Moreover, the antibacterial effect of the honeys in comparison to distilled water was enhanced by artificial saliva. Greek honey seems promising in controlling dental caries but further research is needed.
Syed et al. [2] determined the cytotoxicity of Khat (Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl) on normal oral fibroblasts (NOFs) and squamous carcinoma cells (SCC4) along with expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibroblasts. It was found that Khat is cytotoxic to NOF and SCC4 cells and can also cause activation and phenotypic changes in oral fibroblasts, indicating a probable progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Formoso et al. [3] deals with consumption of healthy food and proposes a small-scale approach called SANI (Italian for “healthy”) which involves experts in science and marketing. It promotes two typical agri-foods of the Abruzzo area (center of Italy), tomato sauce and extra virgin olive oil, characterized as high-quality products in terms of their quality characteristics and ecological footprint. Hence, their consumption is promoted, with reference to food manufacturing issues along with marketing strategies and dissemination activities.
In the paper published by Selvamani et al. [4], an insight in probiotics bioroute from the maternal gut to mammary gland is given, suggesting an occurrence through the entero-mammary pathway. It involves many probiotic microorganisms from the gut, and gastrointestinal lymphatic vessels, macrophages, and dendritic cells are shown to play a significant role in this microbial transmission. Moreover, the distinct role of microbial factors in the development of neonatal immunity and translocation of secretory IgA (SIgA) cells from the intestinal lumen to GALT and finally to mammary glands via this entero-mammary pathway is discussed.
Amargianitakis et al. [5] address the effect of probiotic therapy as a new strategy for dental caries prevention. Probiotics can displace cariogenic microorganisms and colonize the oral cavity producing various antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins, bacteriocin-like peptides, lactic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. Probiotic administration in dental patients involves dairy products. In caries prevention, the concept of the effector strain is already considered as a prevention strategy in adults. Finally, the modes of action of probiotics, their use in the cariology field and their clinical potential are well described along with proposed options to prevent caries using a patient coaching approach for the daily dental practice.
Fernandes et al. [6] deal with mushroom nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This article encompasses the valorization of traditional African foodstuffs and ingredients. This will lead to the enhancement of the importance of establishing food-based dietary guidelines per country. This review highlights the crucial potential of mushrooms, as one of the greatest untapped resources for feeding and providing income for Africa’s growing population, protecting Sub-Saharan Africans against unhealthy stylish diets.
Antoniadou et al. [7] address diet and oral health coaching methods and models for the independent elderly. The health and oral health of the independent elderly should shift from disease management and therapy to integral customized and personal treatment plans, including lifestyle, psychological, nutritional, and oral health coaching approaches. In this paper, health coaching approaches in medical and dental settings are valued regarding their effectiveness in older adults. Diet and oral health coaching should aim to empower older adults in co-management of their oral diseases or bad diet habits affecting their oral health following an incorporated educational plan.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Voidarou, C.; Antoniadou, M.; Rozos, G.; Alexopoulos, A.; Giorgi, E.; Tzora, A.; Skoufos, I.; Varzakas, T.; Bezirtzoglou, E. An In Vitro Study of Different Types of Greek Honey as Potential Natural Antimicrobials against Dental Caries and Other Oral Pathogenic Microorganisms. Case Study Simulation of Oral Cavity Conditions. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 6318. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Syed, A.; Ahmed, M.; AlSagob, E.; Al-Askar, M.; AlMubarak, A.; Jouhar, R.; Ahmed, A.; Mokeem, S.; Aldahiyan, N.; Vohra, F.; et al. Cytotoxic Influence of Khat (Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ex Endl) on Oral Fibroblasts, Squamous Carcinoma Cells, and Expression of α Smooth Muscle Actin. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3524. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Formoso, G.; Pipino, C.; Baldassarre, M.; Del Boccio, P.; Zucchelli, M.; D’Alessandro, N.; Tonucci, L.; Cichelli, A.; Pandolfi, A.; Di Pietro, N. An Italian Innovative Small-Scale Approach to Promote the Conscious Consumption of Healthy Food. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 5678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Selvamani, S.; Dailin, D.; Gupta, V.; Wahid, M.; Keat, H.; Natasya, K.; Malek, R.; Haque, S.; Sayyed, R.; Abomoelak, B.; et al. An Insight into Probiotics Bio-Route: Translocation from the Mother’s Gut to the Mammary Gland. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Amargianitakis, M.; Antoniadou, M.; Rahiotis, C.; Varzakas, T. Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics and Dental Caries. New Perspectives, Suggestions, and Patient Coaching Approach for a Cavity-Free Mouth. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 5472. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Fernandes, T.; Garrine, C.; Ferrão, J.; Bell, V.; Varzakas, T. Mushroom Nutrition as Preventative Healthcare in Sub-Saharan Africa. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 4221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Antoniadou, M.; Varzakas, T. Diet and Oral Health Coaching Methods and Models for the Independent Elderly. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4021. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
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Antoniadou, M.; Varzakas, T. New Insights in Oral Health and Diets. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 11397.

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Antoniadou M, Varzakas T. New Insights in Oral Health and Diets. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(23):11397.

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Antoniadou, Maria, and Theodoros Varzakas. 2021. "New Insights in Oral Health and Diets" Applied Sciences 11, no. 23: 11397.

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