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Article

Holistic Impact and Environmental Efficiency of Retrofitting Interventions on Buildings in the Mediterranean Area: A Directional Distance Function Approach

1
Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth of National Council of Research of Italy (CNR-IRCrES), 10024 Moncalieri, TO, Italy
2
The Institute for Construction Technologies of National Council of Research of Italy (CNR-ITC), 20098 San Giuliano Milanese, MI, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco José Sanchez de la Flor
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10794; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210794
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 10 November 2021 / Accepted: 12 November 2021 / Published: 15 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retrofitting Buildings and Energy Efficiency)
The study focuses on the application of a nonparametric methodology for evaluating the sustainability of retrofitting interventions to be applied on different typologies of buildings and different climate zones of the Mediterranean area. The paper starts from the analysis of data collected through the HAPPEN project, that is a H2020 European project which proposes a holistic approach for a deep and sustainable renovation of the Mediterranean residential Building stock. Even if the European Commission allocated considerable funds for retrofitting interventions, the choice of the optimal solution is not always that easy because several variables have to be considered. The present manuscript proposes a methodology to compare different retrofitting solutions combining Life-Cycle Cost (i.e., LCC) estimations with the nonparametric Directional Distance Function approach (i.e., DDF). In detail, the literature suggests that the DDF can be effectively used for comparing different observations through efficiency scores. The main result of the paper is the definition of a hybrid methodology that, starting from estimates of LCC and applying a DDF technique, represents a simple method for evaluating the best retrofitting intervention. Results are represented by two scores where the former represents a holistic efficiency measure, while the latter shows an environmental efficiency score. View Full-Text
Keywords: directional distance function; building retrofitting; environmental efficiency; holistic impact directional distance function; building retrofitting; environmental efficiency; holistic impact
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cariola, M.; Falavigna, G.; Picenni, F. Holistic Impact and Environmental Efficiency of Retrofitting Interventions on Buildings in the Mediterranean Area: A Directional Distance Function Approach. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 10794. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210794

AMA Style

Cariola M, Falavigna G, Picenni F. Holistic Impact and Environmental Efficiency of Retrofitting Interventions on Buildings in the Mediterranean Area: A Directional Distance Function Approach. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(22):10794. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210794

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cariola, Monica, Greta Falavigna, and Francesca Picenni. 2021. "Holistic Impact and Environmental Efficiency of Retrofitting Interventions on Buildings in the Mediterranean Area: A Directional Distance Function Approach" Applied Sciences 11, no. 22: 10794. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210794

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