Next Article in Journal
A Brief Review on Challenges in Design and Development of Nanorobots for Medical Applications
Next Article in Special Issue
Agreement of Tear Break-Up Time and Meniscus Height between Medmont E300 and Visionix VX120+
Previous Article in Journal
A Wind Tunnel Experimental Study on the Icing Characteristics of a Cylinder Rotating around a Vertical Axis

Advances in the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Dry Eye Disease

IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, University Eye Clinic of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Department of Ophthalmology, Ospedali Privati Forlì “Villa Igea”, 47122 Forlì, Italy
Istituto Internazionale per La Ricerca e Formazione in Oftalmologia (IRFO), 47122 Forlì, Italy
Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Department of Ophthalmology, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Academic Editors: Itziar Fernández Martínez and Alberto López-Miguel
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10384;
Received: 3 October 2021 / Revised: 25 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Objective Assessment of Dry Eye Disease)
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease that represents one of the most common ophthalmologic conditions encountered in everyday clinical practice. Traditional diagnostic tests for DED, such as subjective questionnaires, tear film break-up time and the Schirmer test, are often associated with poor reproducibility and reliability, which make the diagnosis, follow-up, and management of the disease challenging. New advances in imaging technologies enable objective and reproducible measurements of DED parameters, thus making the diagnosis a multimodal imaging-based process. The aim of this review is to summarize all the current and emerging diagnostic tools available for the diagnosis and monitoring of DED, such as non-invasive tear breakup time, thermography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, meibography, interferometry, in vivo confocal microscopy, and optical quality assessment. Although there is not a gold standard imaging technique, new multi-imaging-integrated devices are precious instruments to help clinicians to better cope with the diagnostic complexity of DED. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry eye; diagnosis; noninvasive diagnosis; advanced imaging; NIBUT dry eye; diagnosis; noninvasive diagnosis; advanced imaging; NIBUT
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Di Cello, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Vagge, A.; Borselli, M.; Ferro Desideri, L.; Scorcia, V.; Traverso, C.E.; Giannaccare, G. Advances in the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Dry Eye Disease. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 10384.

AMA Style

Di Cello L, Pellegrini M, Vagge A, Borselli M, Ferro Desideri L, Scorcia V, Traverso CE, Giannaccare G. Advances in the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Dry Eye Disease. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(21):10384.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Cello, Luca, Marco Pellegrini, Aldo Vagge, Massimiliano Borselli, Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Vincenzo Scorcia, Carlo E. Traverso, and Giuseppe Giannaccare. 2021. "Advances in the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Dry Eye Disease" Applied Sciences 11, no. 21: 10384.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop