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Review

Advances in the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Dry Eye Disease

1
IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, University Eye Clinic of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Ospedali Privati Forlì “Villa Igea”, 47122 Forlì, Italy
3
Istituto Internazionale per La Ricerca e Formazione in Oftalmologia (IRFO), 47122 Forlì, Italy
4
Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
5
Department of Ophthalmology, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Academic Editors: Itziar Fernández Martínez and Alberto López-Miguel
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10384; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110384
Received: 3 October 2021 / Revised: 25 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Objective Assessment of Dry Eye Disease)
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease that represents one of the most common ophthalmologic conditions encountered in everyday clinical practice. Traditional diagnostic tests for DED, such as subjective questionnaires, tear film break-up time and the Schirmer test, are often associated with poor reproducibility and reliability, which make the diagnosis, follow-up, and management of the disease challenging. New advances in imaging technologies enable objective and reproducible measurements of DED parameters, thus making the diagnosis a multimodal imaging-based process. The aim of this review is to summarize all the current and emerging diagnostic tools available for the diagnosis and monitoring of DED, such as non-invasive tear breakup time, thermography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, meibography, interferometry, in vivo confocal microscopy, and optical quality assessment. Although there is not a gold standard imaging technique, new multi-imaging-integrated devices are precious instruments to help clinicians to better cope with the diagnostic complexity of DED. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry eye; diagnosis; noninvasive diagnosis; advanced imaging; NIBUT dry eye; diagnosis; noninvasive diagnosis; advanced imaging; NIBUT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Cello, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Vagge, A.; Borselli, M.; Ferro Desideri, L.; Scorcia, V.; Traverso, C.E.; Giannaccare, G. Advances in the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Dry Eye Disease. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 10384. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110384

AMA Style

Di Cello L, Pellegrini M, Vagge A, Borselli M, Ferro Desideri L, Scorcia V, Traverso CE, Giannaccare G. Advances in the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Dry Eye Disease. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(21):10384. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110384

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Cello, Luca, Marco Pellegrini, Aldo Vagge, Massimiliano Borselli, Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Vincenzo Scorcia, Carlo E. Traverso, and Giuseppe Giannaccare. 2021. "Advances in the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Dry Eye Disease" Applied Sciences 11, no. 21: 10384. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110384

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