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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Properties of Polish Vegetable Soups

Department of Food Engineering and Process Management, Institute of Food Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS_SGGW), 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020654
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 7 January 2021 / Accepted: 8 January 2021 / Published: 11 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Technologies in Food Processing)
The aim of this study was to investigate selected physical and biochemical properties of four vegetable freeze-dried soups. The water content, water activity, pH, color parameters, antioxidant activity (EC50), total polyphenolic content of fresh tomato, pumpkin, beetroot, and cucumber, and freeze-dried soups were measured. Sensory analysis was applied to compare sensory attributes of fresh and rehydrated soups. The sorption isotherms of freeze-dried soups were obtained with the application of the static and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method. The application of the freeze-drying method enabled the obtaining of dry soups with a low water content of 2–3%. The drying caused a significant change of color of all soups. The redness of soups decreased after drying for the beetroot soups from +39.64 to +21.91. The lower chroma value of 25.98 and the highest total color change ΔE*ab = 36.74 were noted for freeze-dried beetroot soup. The antioxidation activity and total polyphenolic content were reduced after drying, especially for the cucumber and tomato soups. The Peleg model was selected to describe the sorption isotherms of dried soups. The sorption isotherm of freeze-dried cucumber and beetroot soups had a sigmoidal shape of type II. The shape of the moisture sorption isotherm for freeze-dried tomato and pumpkin soups corresponded more with type III isotherms. The DVS method can be used to characterize the moisture sorption isotherms of freeze-dried products. View Full-Text
Keywords: lyophilization; soup; sorption isotherms; DVS; water activity; color; antioxidant activity; sensory properties lyophilization; soup; sorption isotherms; DVS; water activity; color; antioxidant activity; sensory properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jakubczyk, E.; Jaskulska, A. The Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Properties of Polish Vegetable Soups. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 654. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020654

AMA Style

Jakubczyk E, Jaskulska A. The Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Properties of Polish Vegetable Soups. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(2):654. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020654

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jakubczyk, Ewa; Jaskulska, Aleksandra. 2021. "The Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Properties of Polish Vegetable Soups" Appl. Sci. 11, no. 2: 654. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020654

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