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Article

Leader–Follower Role Allocation for Physical Collaboration in Human Dyads

1
Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Applied Cognitive Psychology, Faculty for Computer Science, Engineering, and Psychology, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department for Automation, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Academic Editor: Dario Richiedei
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 8928; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198928
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 25 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Motion Planning and Control for Robotics)
People often find themselves in situations where collaboration with others is necessary to accomplish a particular task. In such cases, a leader–follower relationship is established to coordinate a plan to achieve a common goal. This is usually accomplished through verbal communication. However, what happens when verbal communication is not possible? In this study, we observe the dynamics of a leader–follower relationship in human dyads during collaborative tasks where there is no verbal communication between partners. Using two robotic arms, we designed a collaborative experimental task in which subjects perform the task individually or coupled together through a virtual model. The results show that human partners fall into the leader–follower dynamics even when they cannot communicate verbally. We demonstrate this in two steps. First, we study how each subject in a collaboration influences task performance, and second, we evaluate whether both partners influence it equally or not using our proposed sorting method to objectively identify a leader. We also study the leader–follower dynamics by analysing the task performance of partners during their individual sessions to predict the role distribution in a dyad. Based on the results of our prediction method, we conclude that the higher-performing individual performance will assume the role of a leader in collaboration. View Full-Text
Keywords: human collaboration; leader–follower dynamics; role allocation; dyadic interaction; human–robot interaction human collaboration; leader–follower dynamics; role allocation; dyadic interaction; human–robot interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kropivšek Leskovar, R.; Čamernik, J.; Petrič, T. Leader–Follower Role Allocation for Physical Collaboration in Human Dyads. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8928. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198928

AMA Style

Kropivšek Leskovar R, Čamernik J, Petrič T. Leader–Follower Role Allocation for Physical Collaboration in Human Dyads. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(19):8928. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198928

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kropivšek Leskovar, Rebeka, Jernej Čamernik, and Tadej Petrič. 2021. "Leader–Follower Role Allocation for Physical Collaboration in Human Dyads" Applied Sciences 11, no. 19: 8928. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198928

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