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Article

Quantitative Analysis of Different Multi-Wavelength PPG Devices and Methods for Noninvasive In-Vivo Estimation of Glycated Hemoglobin

Department of Electronics Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea
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Academic Editors: Alberto Belli, Paola Pierleoni and Sara Raggiunto
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6867; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156867
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 23 July 2021 / Accepted: 25 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Data Transmission and Analysis for Wearable Sensors)
Diabetes is a serious disease affecting the insulin cycle in the human body. Thus, monitoring blood glucose levels and the diagnosis of diabetes in the early stages is very important. Noninvasive in vivo diabetes-diagnosis procedures are very new and require thorough studies to be error-resistant and user-friendly. In this study, we compare two noninvasive procedures (two-wavelength- and three-wavelength-based methods) to estimate glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in different scenarios and evaluate them with error level calculations. The three-wavelength method, which has more model parameters, results in a more accurate estimation of HbA1c even when the blood oxygenation (SpO2) values change. The HbA1c-estimation error range of the two-wavelength model, due to change in SpO2, is found to be from −1.306% to 0.047%. On the other hand, the HbA1c estimation error for the three-wavelength model is found to be in the magnitude of 10−14% and independent of SpO2. The approximation of SpO2 from the two-wavelength model produces a lower error for the molar concentration based technique (−4% to −1.9% at 70% to 100% of reference SpO2) as compared to the molar absorption coefficient based technique. Additionally, the two-wavelength model is less susceptible to sensor noise levels (max SD of %error, 0.142%), as compared to the three-wavelength model (max SD of %error, 0.317%). Despite having a higher susceptibility to sensor noise, the three-wavelength model can estimate HbA1c values more accurately; this is because it takes the major components of blood into account and thus becomes a more realistic model. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycated hemoglobin; error analysis; sensors; mathematical models; photoplethysmography glycated hemoglobin; error analysis; sensors; mathematical models; photoplethysmography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hossain, S.; Haque, C.A.; Kim, K.-D. Quantitative Analysis of Different Multi-Wavelength PPG Devices and Methods for Noninvasive In-Vivo Estimation of Glycated Hemoglobin. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 6867. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156867

AMA Style

Hossain S, Haque CA, Kim K-D. Quantitative Analysis of Different Multi-Wavelength PPG Devices and Methods for Noninvasive In-Vivo Estimation of Glycated Hemoglobin. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(15):6867. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156867

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hossain, Shifat, Chowdhury A. Haque, and Ki-Doo Kim. 2021. "Quantitative Analysis of Different Multi-Wavelength PPG Devices and Methods for Noninvasive In-Vivo Estimation of Glycated Hemoglobin" Applied Sciences 11, no. 15: 6867. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156867

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