Prediction of Transient Temperature Distributions for Laser Welding of Dissimilar Metals
2. Definition of the Model
- Radiation and convection heat loss from the surface are considered for modeling.
- The ambient temperature is 298 K and the system is within good thermal isolation from the environment.
- The change in phase during the process is also taken into account.
- The thermo physical properties of the materials change with the change of temperature.
- The position of the laser beam is vertical to the surface.
- Latent heat during a phase change is considered for simulation. Latent heat for melting of Ti6Al4V and AISI 316L is 286 kJ/kg and 260 kJ/kg respectively.
3. Numerical Model
Mesh Convergence Analysis
4.1. Temperature Propagation during the Welding
4.2. Isothermal Contours
4.3. Temperature Probes
4.4. Offsetting the Laser Beam toward Ti-6Al-4V
- Temperature distribution along the weld line throughout the process at laser spot irradiation shows that the average maximum temperature generated is near 3300 K. Maximum temperatures along the traverse direction (for fixed y value) on z = 0 plane in the middle (x = 5 and x = 15) and edges (x = 0 and x = 20) of the work pieces are approximately 1200 and 1000 K, respectively.
- Temperature distribution along the thickness shows that even the bottom-most surface along the z-axis achieves an average temperature near 2400 K. A significant penetration depth can be achieved. The average temperature of the two domains ranges from 1150 K to 1200 K during the process.
- There are differences in the thermal properties of these two materials. Ti6Al4V has a higher melting temperature. It would take more time than 316L to reach it, as the model was done in zero offsets. The offset of the laser heat source in the same arrangement can create a better-quality welding by adjusting the variations in thermal properties as predicted from the model. Welding interface temperature can be minimized up to 500–1000 K by offsetting the laser beam toward the Ti-6Al-4V side.
- Transient distribution of peak temperature from the weld line along the x-axis is plotted and it decreases as it moves far from the source, for obvious reason. Near the weld line, it decreases sharply and the sharpness decreases as the distance increases from the weld line. The difference of maximum temperature between the edge lines (along x = 0 and x = 20) on the z = 0 plane lies between 20 and 100 K. The maximum temperatures can reach up to 1200 K for both samples along the edges mentioned, which indicates recrystallization for AISI 316 and presence of both α phase and β phase for Ti6Al4V that occur within the sample width range.
- Transient isothermal contours help to understand the heating and cooling phenomena during the process. At higher temperature, AISI316L has a lower thermal conductivity compared to Ti6Al4V; thus, the steel part attains a higher temperature near the weld zone. Temperature history of two nearby points in traverse direction makes it understandable that even within two nearer points; one can be in heating mode and one in cooling mode. This fact demonstrates the complex type of deformation, which is the main source of residual stresses.
6. Future Scope
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|x0||10 [mm]||x coordinate|
|y0||2 [mm]||y coordinate|
|Sigx||0.200 [mm]||Deviation along x|
|Sigy||0.200 [mm]||Deviation along y|
|Ac||5 [1/cm]||Absorption coefficient|
|Q0||300 [W]||Laser power|
|L1||10 [mm]||Material size 1|
|L2||10 [mm]||Material size 2|
|LZ||2.5 [mm]||Thickness of the sheet|
|Time step||0.2||Time step for storing solution|
|End time||17 [s]||End time step|
|V||2.0 [mm/s]||Laser velocity|
|L||40 [mm]||Length of sheet|
|Arguments||Upper Limit||Lower Limit|
|a||(L1 + L2)||0|
|b||2(L1 + L2)||0|
|Heat capacity at constant pressure||Cp(T)||J/(kg·K)|
|Convective heat transfer of air(h)||10 W/m2K|
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Ghosh, P.S.; Sen, A.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Sharma, S.; Singh, J.; Dwivedi, S.P.; Saxena, A.; Khan, A.M.; Pimenov, D.Y.; Giasin, K. Prediction of Transient Temperature Distributions for Laser Welding of Dissimilar Metals. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 5829. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135829
Ghosh PS, Sen A, Chattopadhyaya S, Sharma S, Singh J, Dwivedi SP, Saxena A, Khan AM, Pimenov DY, Giasin K. Prediction of Transient Temperature Distributions for Laser Welding of Dissimilar Metals. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(13):5829. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135829Chicago/Turabian Style
Ghosh, Partha Sarathi, Abhishek Sen, Somnath Chattopadhyaya, Shubham Sharma, Jujhar Singh, Shashi Parkash Dwivedi, Ambuj Saxena, Aqib Mashood Khan, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, and Khaled Giasin. 2021. "Prediction of Transient Temperature Distributions for Laser Welding of Dissimilar Metals" Applied Sciences 11, no. 13: 5829. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135829