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Article

PAGE—Practical AES-GCM Encryption for Low-End Microcontrollers

1
Division of IT Convergence Engineering, Hansung University, Seoul 02876, Korea
2
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3131; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093131
Received: 25 March 2020 / Revised: 25 April 2020 / Accepted: 28 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Side Channel Attacks and Countermeasures)
An optimized AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) implementation of Galois Counter Mode of operation (GCM) on low-end microcontrollers is presented in this paper. Two optimization methods are applied to proposed implementations. First, the AES counter (CTR) mode of operation is speed-optimized and ensures constant timing. The main idea is replacing expensive AES operations, including AddRound Key, SubBytes, ShiftRows, and MixColumns, into simple look-up table access. Unlike previous works, the look-up table does not require look-up table updates during the entire encryption life-cycle. Second, the core operation of Galois Counter Mode (GCM) is optimized further by using Karatsuba algorithm, compact register utilization, and pre-computed operands. With above optimization techniques, proposed AES-GCM on 8-bit AVR (Alf and Vegard’s RISC processor) architecture from short-term, middle-term to long-term security levels achieved 415, 466, and 477 clock cycles per byte, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: AES; fast software encryption; Galois Counter Mode of operation; low-end microcontrollers; side channel attack countermeasure AES; fast software encryption; Galois Counter Mode of operation; low-end microcontrollers; side channel attack countermeasure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, K.; Choi, S.; Kwon, H.; Kim, H.; Liu, Z.; Seo, H. PAGE—Practical AES-GCM Encryption for Low-End Microcontrollers. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3131. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093131

AMA Style

Kim K, Choi S, Kwon H, Kim H, Liu Z, Seo H. PAGE—Practical AES-GCM Encryption for Low-End Microcontrollers. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(9):3131. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093131

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Kyungho, Seungju Choi, Hyeokdong Kwon, Hyunjun Kim, Zhe Liu, and Hwajeong Seo. 2020. "PAGE—Practical AES-GCM Encryption for Low-End Microcontrollers" Applied Sciences 10, no. 9: 3131. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093131

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