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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Host-Directed Therapies and Anti-Virulence Compounds to Address Anti-Microbial Resistant Tuberculosis Infection

by Raphael Gries 1,2, Claudia Sala 3 and Jan Rybniker 1,2,4,*
1
Department I of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany
2
Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany
3
Fondazione Toscana Life Sciences, 53100 Siena, Italy
4
German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082688
Received: 9 March 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 9 April 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Drug Discovery and Development 2019)
Despite global efforts to contain tuberculosis (TB), the disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, further exacerbated by the increased resistance to antibiotics displayed by the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to treat drug-resistant TB, alternative or complementary approaches to standard anti-TB regimens are being explored. An area of active research is represented by host-directed therapies which aim to modulate the host immune response by mitigating inflammation and by promoting the antimicrobial activity of immune cells. Additionally, compounds that reduce the virulence of M. tuberculosis, for instance by targeting the major virulence factor ESX-1, are being given increased attention by the TB research community. This review article summarizes the current state of the art in the development of these emerging therapies against TB. View Full-Text
Keywords: tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; host-directed therapy; anti-virulence compounds tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; host-directed therapy; anti-virulence compounds
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Gries, R.; Sala, C.; Rybniker, J. Host-Directed Therapies and Anti-Virulence Compounds to Address Anti-Microbial Resistant Tuberculosis Infection. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2688.

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