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Open AccessArticle

Intercalating Sn/Fe Nanoparticles in Compact Carbon Monolith for Enhanced Lithium Ion Storage

by Jie Deng 1,*, Yu Dai 2, Hui Dai 2,3 and Luming Li 1,4,*
1
College of Pharmacy and Biological Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
3
College of Materials and Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610065, China
4
Institute of Advanced Study, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072220
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
Given its high-capacity of multielectron (de-)lithiation, SnO2 is deemed as a competitive anode substance to tackle energy density restrictions of low-theoretical-capacity traditional graphite. However, its pragmatic adhibition seriously encounters poor initial coulombic efficiency from irreversible Li2O formation and drastic volume change during repeated charge/discharge. Here, an applicable gel pyrolysis methodology establishes a SnO2/Fe2O3 intercalated carbon monolith as superior anode materials for Li ion batteries to effectively surmount problems of SnO2. Its bulk-like, micron-sized, compact, and non-porous structures with low area surfaces (14.2 m2 g−1) obviously increase the tap density without compromising the transport kinetics, distinct from myriad hierarchically holey metal/carbon materials recorded till date. During the long-term Li+ insertion/extraction, the carbon matrix not only functions as a stress management framework to alleviate the stress intensification on surface layers, enabling the electrode to retain its morphological/mechanic integrity and yielding a steady solid electrolyte interphase film, but also imparts very robust connection to stop SnO2 from coarsening/losing electric contact, facilitating fast electrolyte infiltration and ion/electron transfer. Besides, the closely contacted and evenly distributed Fe2O3/SnO2 nanoparticles supply additional charge-transfer driving force, thanks to a built-in electric field. Benefiting from such virtues, the embedment of binary metal oxides in the dense carbons enhances initial Coulombic efficiency up to 67.3%, with an elevated reversible capacity of 726 mAh/g at 0.2 A/g, a high capacity retention of 84% after 100 cycles, a boosted rate capability between 0.2 and 3.2 A g−1, and a stable cycle life of 466 mAh/g over 200 cycles at 1 A g−1. Our scenario based upon this unique binary metal-in-carbon sandwich compact construction to achieve the stress regulation and the so-called synergistic effect between metals or metal oxides and carbons is economically effective and tractable enough to scale up the preparation and can be rifely employed to other oxide anodes for ameliorating their electrochemical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: anode; lithium ion battery; tin oxide; carbon materials anode; lithium ion battery; tin oxide; carbon materials
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Deng, J.; Dai, Y.; Dai, H.; Li, L. Intercalating Sn/Fe Nanoparticles in Compact Carbon Monolith for Enhanced Lithium Ion Storage. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2220.

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