# Experiment on Interaction of Abutment, Steel H-Pile and Soil in Integral Abutment Jointless Bridges (IAJBs) under Low-Cycle Pseudo-Static Displacement Loads

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Brief Introduction of Test

#### 2.1. Specimen Design and Manufacturing

#### 2.1.1. Specimen Design

_{1}and t

_{2}) are 10 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The total length of scaled steel H-pile (L) is 3.21 m. In Figure 1a, the depth of steel pile that embedded into the abutment is 0.31 m (2 times of b), which meets the requirement of consolidation according to the Reference [22]. The depth of steel pile (l

_{0}) buried in the soil is 2.9 m. The construction of the specimen was shown in Figure 1d.

#### 2.1.2. Specimen Material and Soil Properties

#### Specimen Material Characteristics

#### Soil Properties

_{u}) obtained by the diameter of sand was 3.15, which means that the soil is basically homogeneous [23]. Poisson’s ratio was calculated using the method of Kulhawy [24]. The parameters of sand are shown in Table 1.

#### 2.1.3. Specimen Manufacturing

#### 2.2. Soil Box Design and Specimen Installation

#### 2.2.1. Soil Box Design and Manufacturing

#### 2.2.2. Specimen Orientation and Soil Filling

#### 2.3. Layout of Measurement Points

#### 2.3.1. Layout of Earth Pressure Cells

#### 2.3.2. Layout of Displacement Gages and Inclinometers

#### 2.4. Loading Test

#### 2.4.1. Loads

#### Horizontal Displacement loads

#### Vertical Weight

#### 2.4.2. Loading Scheme

## 3. Experimental Results and Analyses

#### 3.1. Earth Pressure behind Abutment

#### 3.1.1. Relationship between Earth Pressure and Displacement Load

_{p}from Burke-Chen [12,28], England [13], Barker and NCHRP [29], Dicleli [30], Massachusetts [31], Rankine theory and Coulomb theory are compared with the test results.

_{p}of Burke-Chen, England, Barker, NCHRP, Dicleli, Massachusetts when ∆/H is not larger than 0.004 (∆/H ≤ 0.004). Moreover, it is approximately equal to two thirds of earth pressure coefficient of Rankine theory, but it is far less than Coulomb theory. When ∆/H is larger than 0.004 and less than or equal to 0.006 (0.004 < ∆/H ≤ 0.006), the K

_{p}from Burke-Chen, England, Barker, NCHRP and Dicleli are less than that of test. The K

_{p}from Rankine theory is nearly close to the test result, but still significant lower that Coulomb theory when ∆/H reaches 0.006 (∆/H = 0.006). The test result is larger than all of those except Coulomb theory when ∆/H is between 0.006 and 0.012 (0.006 < ∆/H ≤ 0.012). However, it exceeds the Coulomb theory when ∆/H is larger than 0.012 (∆/H > 0.012). Therefore, the coefficient K

_{p}obtained from this test is larger than all of them, which is demonstrated the ratcheting effect significantly. Moreover, the coefficient K

_{p}from this test is 3.33 times as much as that of Rankine theory and 1.27 as much as that of Coulomb theory when ∆/H is equal to 0.016 (∆/H = 0.016). Therefore, the existing calculation method earth pressure of backfill behind abutment is not accurate for that of IAJB.

_{a}and earth pressure coefficient at rest K

_{0}were obtained from the code of General Specifications for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts (JTG D60-2015) [32] in China, while how to calculate K

_{p}was not given. The calculation of K

_{a}and K

_{0}by JTG D60-2015 was also shown in Figure 10. The coefficients of K

_{a}and K

_{0}are less than the K

_{p}of test from Figure 10. The result further indicated that the calculation of the K

_{a}and K

_{0}in the Chinese code is not suitable for IAJBs, which need to be improved to consider the coefficient K

_{p}.

#### 3.1.2. Distribution of Earth Pressure

#### Distribution along the Height of Abutment

#### Distribution along the Longitudinal Direction

#### 3.2. Hysteretic Curve and Skeleton Curve

#### 3.2.1. Hysteretic Curve

_{1}path shown in Figure 14). The hysteretic curves of soil-abutment-pile interaction in the first quadrant represent the abutment movements in the positive direction (From A to B in Figure 14), and the curves in the third quadrant represent the abutment movements in the negative direction (From D to E in Figure 14). Besides, the curves in the second quadrant represent the changing process from soil-pile interaction to soil-abutment-pile interaction (From B to D in Figure 14), and the curves in the fourth quadrant represent the changing process from soil-abutment-pile interaction to soil-pile interaction (From E to A

_{1}in Figure 14).

_{1}) and arrives at the initial position (Point A

_{1}). Then, the unbalanced force of the actuator grows to +23.44 kN, which is also the initial force of third cycle of ±14 mm displacement load step, and slightly larger than that in the second cycle.

_{h}= area of a full cycle of force-displacement response, N·mm; F = Maximum force occurring within a cycle, N; Δ = Maximum displacement occurring within a cycle, mm.

#### 3.2.2. Skeleton Curve

#### 3.3. Horizontal Deformation

#### 3.3.1. Time-History Curves of Horizontal Deformation

#### Time-History Curves Considering Accumulative Deformation

#### Time-History Curves Deducting Accumulative Deformation

#### 3.3.2. Horizontal Deformation along the Depth

#### Horizontal Deformation under Positive Displacements

#### Horizontal Deformation under Negative Displacements

#### 3.4. Rotation of Abutment

## 4. Conclusions

- (1)
- The passive earth pressure of backfill is over 30 times of active earth pressure, and the passive earth pressure coefficient is larger than those by others (Burke-Chen, Barker, NCHRP, Dicleli, England, Massachusetts, Rankine theory, Coulomb theory and JTG D60-2015) due to the ratcheting effect of soil. The existing calculation method earth pressure of backfill behind abutment is not accurate for that of IAJB.
- (2)
- The earth pressure behind abutment has a typical triangular distribution when the horizontal displacement is small (less than 8 mm), and it shows a trapezoid distribution when the soil is close to abutment under a large horizontal displacement (larger than 8 mm). The earth pressure at horizontal distances of 0.6H and 1.4H from the back of the abutment is triangular under different displacements. The pile has little influence on the distribution of earth pressure when distance exceeds 1.4H.
- (3)
- The accumulative deformation is observed and the hysteretic curves are dramatically asymmetrical, but the soil-abutment-pile system shows a linear behavior yet.
- (4)
- The energy dissipation capacity when test specimen moves to the positive direction is much larger than that when specimen moves to the negative direction. The soil-abutment-pile system in IAJBs has favorable energy dissipation capacity and seismic behavior. The sum of horizontal deformation of abutment-pile-soil specimen are far larger than that of traditional pile-soil specimen due to the effect of accumulative deformation. Its maximum horizontal deformation occurs at the pile body rather than the pile head. The phenomenon of void is observed at the surface of the backfill and the interface between abutment and pile, which is also one of the reasons for bumping at bridge-end and settlement of soil.
- (5)
- The time-history horizontal accumulative deformation goes up with the increase of displacement load, and the growth rate becomes faster when the displacement load reaches 10 mm. The accumulative deformation is relatively small for the abutment, but it is large in the buried depth of 1.0b~3.0b for pile. The traditional calculated theory of deformation of pile is not appropriate to calculate the accumulative deformation. The noncumulative deformation is nearly the same as the deformation of traditional theory. The influence of accumulative deformation should be considered in practical engineering.
- (6)
- A significant difference of inclinations in the positive and negative directions increases when the displacement load is relatively large. The rotation of abutment when bridge expands is larger than that when bridge contracts.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Test specimen dimensions (unit: mm). (

**a**) Abutment-pile specimen. (

**b**) Section I-I. (

**c**) Section II-II. (

**d**) Photos of specimen after construction.

**Figure 2.**Manufacturing of the specimen (unit: mm). (

**a**) Layout of the specimen. (

**b**) Construction of the specimen. (

**c**) Reinforcement layout of abutment. (

**d**) Photo of steel layout of pile and abutment. (

**e**) Details of consolidation of pile and abutment. (

**f**) Photo of Abutment-pile specimens and soil box.

**Figure 4.**The process of soil filling. (

**a**) The installation of specimen. (

**b**) Details of the pile-toe. (

**c**) The filling up to 3 m. (

**d**) Photo for filling the soil of backfill. (

**e**) Fully filled. (

**f**) Photo for fully filled.

**Figure 5.**Layout of earth pressure cells (unit: mm). (

**a**) Layout of earth pressure cells. (

**b**) Cell on the abutment. (

**c**) Cell behind the abutment. (

**d**) Cell on the pile.

**Figure 6.**Layout of displacement meters and inclinometers (unit: mm). (

**a**) Layout. (

**b**) Photo of displacement meters.

**Figure 11.**Distribution of passive earth pressure along the height of abutment. (

**a**) Cells at the back face of the abutment. (

**b**) Cells at horizontal distance of 0.2H. (

**c**) Cells at horizontal distance of 0.6H. (

**d**) Cells at horizontal distance of 1.4H.

**Figure 13.**Hysteresis curves. (

**a**) Hysteretic curves for the entire process. (

**b**) Hysteretic curve for one cycle.

**Figure 18.**Time-history curves considering accumulative deformation. (

**a**) The locations of nine measurement points and the distribution (red line) of the specimen considering accumulative deformation. (

**b**) D1. (

**c**) D2. (

**d**) D4. (

**e**) D5. (

**f**) D6. (

**g**) D7. (

**h**) D8. (

**i**) D10. (

**j**) D13.

**Figure 20.**Time-history curves deducting accumulative deformation. (

**a**) The locations of nine measurement points and the distribution (red line) of the specimen deducting accumulative deformation. (

**b**) D1. (

**c**) D2. (

**d**) D4. (

**e**) D5. (

**f**) D6. (

**g**) D7. (

**h**) D8. (

**i**) D10. (

**j**) D13.

**Figure 23.**Distribution of horizontal deformation of specimen under negative displacement loads. (

**a**) Under displacement loads of −2 mm~−10 mm. (

**b**) Under displacement loads of −10 mm~−16 mm.

Water Content ω (%) | Density ρ (g/cm^{3}) | Void Ratio e | Cohesive Ratio c (KPa) | Internal Friction angle φ (°) | C_{u} | Poisson Ratio v |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1.3 | 1.50 | 0.80 | 0 | 35 | 3.15 | 0.3 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Huang, F.; Shan, Y.; Chen, G.; Lin, Y.; Tabatabai, H.; Briseghella, B.
Experiment on Interaction of Abutment, Steel H-Pile and Soil in Integral Abutment Jointless Bridges (IAJBs) under Low-Cycle Pseudo-Static Displacement Loads. *Appl. Sci.* **2020**, *10*, 1358.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041358

**AMA Style**

Huang F, Shan Y, Chen G, Lin Y, Tabatabai H, Briseghella B.
Experiment on Interaction of Abutment, Steel H-Pile and Soil in Integral Abutment Jointless Bridges (IAJBs) under Low-Cycle Pseudo-Static Displacement Loads. *Applied Sciences*. 2020; 10(4):1358.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041358

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Huang, Fuyun, Yulin Shan, Guodong Chen, Youwei Lin, Habib Tabatabai, and Bruno Briseghella.
2020. "Experiment on Interaction of Abutment, Steel H-Pile and Soil in Integral Abutment Jointless Bridges (IAJBs) under Low-Cycle Pseudo-Static Displacement Loads" *Applied Sciences* 10, no. 4: 1358.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041358