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Article

Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived via Pyrolysis Process of Spent Coffee: Structural Characterization. Investigation of Its Use for Hexavalent Chromium Removal

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina, Greece
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Physics Department, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina, Greece
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Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Palacky University, 77146 Olomouc, Czech Republic
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Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 2172/15, 70800 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
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Institute of Materials Science and Computing, University Research Center of Ioannina (URCI), 45110 Ioannina, Greece
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8812; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248812
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Application of Nanoporous Materials)
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a heavy metal that is highly soluble and exhibits toxic effects on biological systems. Nevertheless, it is used in many industrial applications. The adsorption process of Cr(VI), using activated carbon (AC), is under investigation globally. On the other hand, around six million tons of spent coffee is sent to landfill annually. In the spirit of cyclic economy, this research investigated the production of AC from spent coffee for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater. The AC was produced via pyrolysis process under a nitrogen atmosphere. Chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) occurred simultaneously with the pyrolysis process. The produced AC was tested as an absorber of Cr(VI). The best fitted kinetic model was the diffusion–chemisorption model. A 24-h adsorption experiment was carried out using a solution with a pH of 3 and an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 54.14 ppm. This resulted in an experimental maximum capacity of 109 mg/g, while the theoretical prediction was 137 mg/g. It also resulted in an initial adsorption rate (ri) of 110 (mg/(g h)). The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area (SgBET) was 1372 m2/g, the Langmuir surface area (SgLang.) was 1875 m2/g, and the corrugated pore structure model surface area (SgCPSM) was 1869 m2/g. The micropore volume was 84.6%, exhibiting micropores at Dmicro1 = 1.28 and Dmicro2 = 1.6 nm. The tortuosity factor (τ) was 4.65. View Full-Text
Keywords: activated carbon; spent coffee; waste coffee; biowaste valorization; hexavalent chromium; chromium adsorption; chromium removal kinetics; biowaste activated carbon characterization activated carbon; spent coffee; waste coffee; biowaste valorization; hexavalent chromium; chromium adsorption; chromium removal kinetics; biowaste activated carbon characterization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Asimakopoulos, G.; Baikousi, M.; Kostas, V.; Papantoniou, M.; Bourlinos, A.B.; Zbořil, R.; Karakassides, M.A.; Salmas, C.E. Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived via Pyrolysis Process of Spent Coffee: Structural Characterization. Investigation of Its Use for Hexavalent Chromium Removal. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 8812. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248812

AMA Style

Asimakopoulos G, Baikousi M, Kostas V, Papantoniou M, Bourlinos AB, Zbořil R, Karakassides MA, Salmas CE. Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived via Pyrolysis Process of Spent Coffee: Structural Characterization. Investigation of Its Use for Hexavalent Chromium Removal. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(24):8812. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asimakopoulos, Georgios, Maria Baikousi, Vasilis Kostas, Marios Papantoniou, Athanasios B. Bourlinos, Radek Zbořil, Michael A. Karakassides, and Constantinos E. Salmas. 2020. "Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived via Pyrolysis Process of Spent Coffee: Structural Characterization. Investigation of Its Use for Hexavalent Chromium Removal" Applied Sciences 10, no. 24: 8812. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248812

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