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Article

Ray-Tracing-Based Numerical Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Duty Cycle of 5G Massive MIMO in an Outdoor Urban Environment

Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/IMEC, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7631; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217631
Received: 23 September 2020 / Revised: 20 October 2020 / Accepted: 24 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Exposure in 5G and 6G Scenarios)
In the near future, wireless coverage will be provided by the base stations equipped with dynamically-controlled massive phased antenna arrays that direct the transmission towards the user. This contribution describes a computational method to estimate realistic maximum power levels produced by such base stations, in terms of the time-averaged normalized antenna array gain. The Ray-Tracing method is used to simulate the electromagnetic field (EMF) propagation in an urban outdoor macro-cell environment model. The model geometry entities are generated stochastically, which allowed generalization of the results through statistical analysis. Multiple modes of the base station operation are compared: from LTE multi-user codebook beamforming to the more advanced Maximum Ratio and Zero-Forcing precoding schemes foreseen to be implemented in the massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) communication protocols. The influence of the antenna array size, from 4 up to 100 elements, in a square planar arrangement is studied. For a 64-element array, the 95th percentile of the maximum time-averaged array gain amounts to around 20% of the theoretical maximum, using the Maximum Ratio precoding with 5 simultaneously connected users, assuming a 10 s connection duration per user. Connection between the average array gain and actual EMF levels in the environment is drawn and its implications on the human exposure in the next generation networks are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5G; EMF exposure; Ray-Tracing; Massive MIMO 5G; EMF exposure; Ray-Tracing; Massive MIMO
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shikhantsov, S.; Thielens, A.; Aerts, S.; Verloock, L.; Torfs, G.; Martens, L.; Demeester, P.; Joseph, W. Ray-Tracing-Based Numerical Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Duty Cycle of 5G Massive MIMO in an Outdoor Urban Environment. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7631. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217631

AMA Style

Shikhantsov S, Thielens A, Aerts S, Verloock L, Torfs G, Martens L, Demeester P, Joseph W. Ray-Tracing-Based Numerical Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Duty Cycle of 5G Massive MIMO in an Outdoor Urban Environment. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(21):7631. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shikhantsov, Sergei, Arno Thielens, Sam Aerts, Leen Verloock, Guy Torfs, Luc Martens, Piet Demeester, and Wout Joseph. 2020. "Ray-Tracing-Based Numerical Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Duty Cycle of 5G Massive MIMO in an Outdoor Urban Environment" Applied Sciences 10, no. 21: 7631. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217631

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