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Open AccessConcept Paper

Ancillary Services Offered by Distributed Renewable Energy Sources at the Distribution Grid Level: An Attempt at Proper Definition and Quantification

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Seville, 41092 Seville, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7106; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207106
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 10 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ancillary Services by DRES in Distribution Grids)
The gradual displacement of synchronous generators driven by conventional power plants, due to the increasing penetration of distributed renewable energy sources (DRES) in distribution grids, is creating a shortage of crucial ancillary services (AS) which are vital for the frequency and voltage stability of the grid. These AS, and some new ones, could now be offered by the DRES, particularly those that are converter interfaced, in a coordinated way in order to preserve the grid stability and resilience. Although recent standards and grid codes specify that the DRES exhibit some system support functions, there are no specifications on how to measure and quantify (M & Q) them both at DRES level and in aggregated form. The M & Q of AS is crucial, since it would allow the AS to be treated as tradable AS in the current and future AS markets. This paper attempts to define a number of AS that can be offered by converter-interfaced DRES and suggests methods for their M & Q. The new AS addressed are: (1) inertial response; (2) primary frequency response; (3) active power smoothing (ramp-rate limitation); (4) exchange of reactive power for voltage regulation; (5) fault-ride-through (FRT) and contribution to fault clearing; (6) voltage harmonic mitigation. Additionally, a rough estimation of the additional investment and operational cost, as well as the financial benefits associated with each AS is provided in order to form the basis for the development of business models around each AS in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: active harmonic filtering; active power smoothing; ancillary services; distributed renewable energy sources; distribution grids; inertial response; primary frequency response; voltage regulation active harmonic filtering; active power smoothing; ancillary services; distributed renewable energy sources; distribution grids; inertial response; primary frequency response; voltage regulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Demoulias, C.S.; Malamaki, K.-N.D.; Gkavanoudis, S.; Mauricio, J.M.; Kryonidis, G.C.; Oureilidis, K.O.; Kontis, E.O.; Martinez Ramos, J.L. Ancillary Services Offered by Distributed Renewable Energy Sources at the Distribution Grid Level: An Attempt at Proper Definition and Quantification. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7106.

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