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Article

On the Relationship between a Novel Prorocentrum sp. and Colonial Phaeocystis antarctica under Iron and Vitamin B12 Limitation: Ecological Implications for Antarctic Waters

1
Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia 21, 80126 Napoli, Italy
2
Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli, Italy
3
CoNISMa, Piazzale Flaminio, 9, 00196 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6965; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196965
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 / Published: 5 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in the Biodiversity and Ecosystem of Phytoplankton)
We collected live mixed natural samples from the northeastern Ross Sea during the austral summer of 2017 and isolated a novel Prorocentrum sp. (Dinophyceae) associated with mucilaginous Phaeocystis antarctica (Coccolithophyceae) colonies. The haptophyte P. antarctica is a key species of the phytoplankton community in the Ross Sea, where blooms are subjected to iron limitation and/or co-limitation with other micronutrients (e.g., vitamin B12) during the summer. We first performed preliminary genetic analyses to determine the specific identity of the novel Prorocentrum sp., which indicated that it represented a previously undescribed species. The formal description of this new species is in process. To further assess its relationship with P. antarctica, we obtained their monospecific and mixed cultures and evaluated their responses to different irradiance levels and iron and vitamin B12 limitation. Our results indicated differential susceptibility of the two species to iron limitation and differential photosynthetic plasticity under high irradiance. Iron limitation reduced colony formation in P. antarctica and decreased the chlorophyll-a content in Prorocentrum sp., whereas B12 limitation did not affect growth or photosynthetic efficiency in either species. In addition, P. antarctica could photosynthesize efficiently under different irradiance levels, due to its ability to modulate the light adsorption cross-section of PSII, whereas Prorocentrum sp. exhibited lower photosynthetic plasticity and an inability to modulate both the maximum photochemical efficiency and effective adsorption cross-section of PSII under high irradiance. The trophic interaction between Prorocentrum sp. and P. antarctica could present ecological implications for the food webs and biogeochemical cycles of the Antarctic ecosystem. Considering the predicted climate-driven shifts in global ocean surface light regimes and changes in iron or vitamin B12 transfer, which are most likely to impact changes in the phytoplankton community structure, our results present implications for carbon export to deeper waters, ecological functioning, and associated biogeochemical changes in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ross Sea; phytoplankton diversity; photosynthetic efficiency; climate change Ross Sea; phytoplankton diversity; photosynthetic efficiency; climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bolinesi, F.; Saggiomo, M.; Aceto, S.; Cordone, A.; Serino, E.; Valoroso, M.C.; Mangoni, O. On the Relationship between a Novel Prorocentrum sp. and Colonial Phaeocystis antarctica under Iron and Vitamin B12 Limitation: Ecological Implications for Antarctic Waters. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 6965. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196965

AMA Style

Bolinesi F, Saggiomo M, Aceto S, Cordone A, Serino E, Valoroso MC, Mangoni O. On the Relationship between a Novel Prorocentrum sp. and Colonial Phaeocystis antarctica under Iron and Vitamin B12 Limitation: Ecological Implications for Antarctic Waters. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(19):6965. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196965

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bolinesi, Francesco, Maria Saggiomo, Serena Aceto, Angelina Cordone, Emanuela Serino, Maria C. Valoroso, and Olga Mangoni. 2020. "On the Relationship between a Novel Prorocentrum sp. and Colonial Phaeocystis antarctica under Iron and Vitamin B12 Limitation: Ecological Implications for Antarctic Waters" Applied Sciences 10, no. 19: 6965. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196965

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