Numerous triaxial tests on sand and sand-like materials have been performed worldwide during the past several decades. Their results provided a development of the advanced soil constitutive models and laboratory testing devices, as well as the establishment of a worldwide database of different types of uniform sandy materials. From such research, the critical state and steady state theory has emerged as one of the most useful tool for the modelling of a soil behaviour. This paper presents the results of static drained tests performed on the uniform Drava River sand from the Osijek region in Croatia. The main aim was to determine the shear behaviour and critical state, given that these characteristics are mostly unknown for the tested sand material. A series of detail triaxial tests were performed in drained conditions for three different initial relative densities,
, and two different loading directions; e.g., axial compression and axial extension. In total, 18 drained tests were performed. The study indicated that the value of
is the critical friction angle for the tested sand. The relative density of 57% is determined as the critical relative density. Additionally, the study confirmed the difference in critical state for compression and extension loading. In addition, the results indicate that the sample preparation procedure has an important impact on the critical state of loosely prepared sandy samples. These results give the first insights into the behaviour of the Drava River sand, which can generally contribute to the worldwide sand behaviour knowledge base.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited