Microscopic characteristics greatly affect mechanical and physical properties as they exert vital impact on the stability and durability of materials. In this paper, widely distributed sandstone was chosen as the research object. Sandstone was treated with a coupled effect of Freeze–Thaw (F–T) weathering and acid solution, where freeze–thaw cycles were set as 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 cycles, and the pH of the acid solution were set as 2.8, 4.2, 5.6 and 7.0, respectively. Then, nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to measure the microscopic characteristics of sandstone, then porosity, pore size distribution and permeability before the fractal dimensions were obtained and calculated. Results show that porosity increases when F–T cycles increase, and its increase grows with the pH of acid solution decrease during the first 10 F–T cycles. Macro porosity, meso porosity and micro porosity account for the largest, second largest and smallest ratio of porosity growth. Meso porosity, micro porosity and macro porosity account for the largest, second largest and smallest ratio of total porosity. Permeability increases obviously with F–T cycle increase, while acid erosion exerts little influence on permeability increment overall. Fractal dimensions of meso pores and macro pores increase with F–T cycle increase overall, and they increase with pH decrease overall. Porosity has strong exponentially correlation with permeability. Fractal dimensions of meso pores and macro pores have good linearly correlation with permeability, while correlation between porosity and fractal dimensions are not that obvious.
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