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Article

Operational Performance and Degradation of PV Systems Consisting of Six Technologies in Three Climates

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Department of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, UIN Suska Riau University, Jl. H.R. Soebrantas No. 115, Pekanbaru 28292, Indonesia
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Technology Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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Institute for Renewable Energy, EURAC Research, Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
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Faculty of Engineering, University of Ljubljana Trzaska cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Technical University of Applied Sciences Amberg-Weiden, 92637 Weiden, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5412; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165412
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 25 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems)
In Indonesia, the solar photovoltaic (PV) market is rapidly growing. However, studies on the outdoor performance of PV systems in this tropical rainforest country is lacking. In this work, we compare the performance of PV systems in Indonesia with PV systems in Australia (arid, desert, hot) and Italy (temperate, dry summer, hot summer). Monitoring data from 2008 to 2019, ranging from two to nine years, from fifteen PV systems of six technologies were analyzed. The performance of the PV systems was presented using their performance ratio (PR) and performance loss rate (PLR). PR was calculated using IEC standard 61724, and PLR was calculated using seasonal and trend decomposition, applying locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (STL decomposition) and the year-on-year approach from NREL/RdTools. The results showed that the CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide) system had the highest average PR value of 0.88 ± 0.04. The lowest average PR was found in the a-Si (amorphous silicon) PV systems (0.78 ± 0.05). The p-Si (polycrystalline silicon) systems in the Cfb (temperate, no dry season, warm summer) climate of Italy had a higher average PR of 0.84 than those operated in climates BWh (arid, desert, hot) of Australia and Af (tropical, rainforest) of Indonesia, with the same value of 0.81. The p-Si systems showed the lowest PLR, with a value of −0.6%/year. The fastest degradation was experienced by a-Si modules at −1.58%/year. The methodological differences in the calculation of PLR using both tested approaches resulted in a significant difference in the degradation value, which demands standardization of the term and calculation methodology. View Full-Text
Keywords: degradation; Indonesia; performance loss rate; performance ratio; solar photovoltaic; STL decomposition; year-on-year degradation; Indonesia; performance loss rate; performance ratio; solar photovoltaic; STL decomposition; year-on-year
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kunaifi, K.; Reinders, A.; Lindig, S.; Jaeger, M.; Moser, D. Operational Performance and Degradation of PV Systems Consisting of Six Technologies in Three Climates. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165412

AMA Style

Kunaifi K, Reinders A, Lindig S, Jaeger M, Moser D. Operational Performance and Degradation of PV Systems Consisting of Six Technologies in Three Climates. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(16):5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165412

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kunaifi, Kunaifi, Angèle Reinders, Sascha Lindig, Magnus Jaeger, and David Moser. 2020. "Operational Performance and Degradation of PV Systems Consisting of Six Technologies in Three Climates" Applied Sciences 10, no. 16: 5412. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165412

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