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Article

Batch Stirred-Tank Green Extraction of Salvia fruticosa Mill. Polyphenols Using Newly Designed Citrate-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ultrasonication Pretreatment

1
Department of Food Science & Nutrition, School of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitr. Ioakim Street, Myrina, 81400 Lemnos, Greece
2
Food Quality & Chemistry of Natural Products, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (M. A. I. Ch.), International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), P.O. Box 85, 73100 Chania, Greece
3
Green Processes & Biorefinery Group, Department of Food Science & Nutrition, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Thessaly, N. Temponera Street, 43100 Karditsa, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4774; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144774
Received: 13 June 2020 / Revised: 2 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 11 July 2020
A series of citrate salts were tested as hydrogen bond acceptors to synthesize deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on lactic acid and glycerol, used as hydrogen bond donors. The DES produced were then screened to identify the highest performing system for the effective extraction of polyphenolic phytochemicals from the medicinal plant Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Greek sage). The most efficacious DES was the one composed of lactic acid and sodium citrate dibasic, at a molar ratio of 15:1 (LA-SCDB15). Furthermore, for the first time there has been evidence concerning DES pH and extraction efficiency. Using this solvent, a batch, stirred-tank extraction process was developed, by employing ultrasonication pretreatment and response surface methodology. The optimal settings determined were stirring speed 900 rpm, proportion of DES/water 77% (w/v), and ultrasonication pretreatment time 15 min. By adjusting these optimal settings, the predicted maximum total polyphenol yield was calculated to be 79.93 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid equivalents g−1 dry mass. The examination of temperature effects demonstrated that the batch, stirred-tank extraction stage was very energy-efficient, with a barrier of 7.64 kJ mol−1. Comparison of the extraction of Salvia fruticosa polyphenols with other green processes previously developed, illustrated the high extraction capacity of LA-SCDB15. The major polyphenols identified in the extracts produced under optimized settings were chlorogenic acid, luteolin 7-O-glucuronide and rosmarinic acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; deep eutectic solvents; extraction kinetics; polyphenols; Salvia fruticosa; ultrasonication antioxidants; deep eutectic solvents; extraction kinetics; polyphenols; Salvia fruticosa; ultrasonication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grigorakis, S.; Halahlah, A.; Makris, D.P. Batch Stirred-Tank Green Extraction of Salvia fruticosa Mill. Polyphenols Using Newly Designed Citrate-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ultrasonication Pretreatment. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4774. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144774

AMA Style

Grigorakis S, Halahlah A, Makris DP. Batch Stirred-Tank Green Extraction of Salvia fruticosa Mill. Polyphenols Using Newly Designed Citrate-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ultrasonication Pretreatment. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(14):4774. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144774

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grigorakis, Spyros, Abedalghani Halahlah, and Dimitris P. Makris 2020. "Batch Stirred-Tank Green Extraction of Salvia fruticosa Mill. Polyphenols Using Newly Designed Citrate-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ultrasonication Pretreatment" Applied Sciences 10, no. 14: 4774. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144774

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