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Article

Studies of Buried Layers and Interfaces of Tungsten Carbide Coatings on the MWCNT Surface by XPS and NEXAFS Spectroscopy

1
Faculty of Physics, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Saint-Petersburg State University”, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
2
Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Komi Science Center Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 167982 Syktyvkar, Russia
3
Hybrid Nanomaterials Laboratory, G.A.Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
4
Department of Magnetic Nanostructures, Institute for Physics of Microstructures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
5
Institute of Engineering, Vladimir State University Named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs, Gorky Str. 87, 600000 Vladimir, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4736; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144736
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 2 July 2020 / Accepted: 5 July 2020 / Published: 9 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS))
Currently, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is widely used to characterize the nanostructured material surface. The ability to determine the atom distribution and chemical state with depth without the sample destruction is important for studying the internal structure of the coating layer several nanometers thick, and makes XPS the preferable tool for the non-destructive testing of nanostructured systems. In this work, ultra-soft X-ray spectroscopy methods are used to study hidden layers and interfaces of pyrolytic tungsten carbide nanoscale coatings on the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces. XPS measurements were performed using laboratory spectrometers with sample charge compensation, and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) studies using the Russian–German dipole beamline (RGBL) synchrotron radiation at BESSY-II. The studied samples were tested by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Raman scattering and NEXAFS spectroscopy. It was shown that the interface between MWCNT and the pyrolytic coating of tungsten carbide has a three-layer structure: (i) an interface layer consisting of the outer graphene layer carbon atoms, forming bonds with oxygen atoms from the oxides adsorbed on the MWCNT surface, and tungsten atoms from the coating layer; (ii) a non-stoichiometric tungsten carbide WC1-x nanoscale particles layer; (iii) a 3.3 nm thick non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide WO3-x layer on the WC1-x/MWCNT nanocomposite outer surface, formed in air. The tungsten carbide nanosized particle’s adhesion to the nanotube outer surface is ensured by the formation of a chemical bond between the carbon atoms from the MWCNT upper layer and the tungsten atoms from the coating layer. View Full-Text
Keywords: XPS; NEXAFS; TEY; MWCNT; WC1-x/MWCNTs; MOCVD XPS; NEXAFS; TEY; MWCNT; WC1-x/MWCNTs; MOCVD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sivkov, D.; Nekipelov, S.; Petrova, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Mingaleva, A.; Isaenko, S.; Makarov, P.; Ob’edkov, A.; Kaverin, B.; Gusev, S.; Vilkov, I.; Aborkin, A.; Sivkov, V. Studies of Buried Layers and Interfaces of Tungsten Carbide Coatings on the MWCNT Surface by XPS and NEXAFS Spectroscopy. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4736. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144736

AMA Style

Sivkov D, Nekipelov S, Petrova O, Vinogradov A, Mingaleva A, Isaenko S, Makarov P, Ob’edkov A, Kaverin B, Gusev S, Vilkov I, Aborkin A, Sivkov V. Studies of Buried Layers and Interfaces of Tungsten Carbide Coatings on the MWCNT Surface by XPS and NEXAFS Spectroscopy. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(14):4736. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144736

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sivkov, Danil, Sergey Nekipelov, Olga Petrova, Alexander Vinogradov, Alena Mingaleva, Sergey Isaenko, Pavel Makarov, Anatoly Ob’edkov, Boris Kaverin, Sergey Gusev, Ilya Vilkov, Artemiy Aborkin, and Viktor Sivkov. 2020. "Studies of Buried Layers and Interfaces of Tungsten Carbide Coatings on the MWCNT Surface by XPS and NEXAFS Spectroscopy" Applied Sciences 10, no. 14: 4736. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144736

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