Emerging contaminants’ presence in water, wastewater, and aquatic environments has been widely reported. Their environmental and health-related effects, and the increasing tendency towards wastewater reuse require technology that could remove to a greater degree, or even mineralize, all these contaminants. Currently, the most commonly used process technologies for their removal are advanced oxidation processes (AOPs); however, recent advances have highlighted other advanced treatment processes (ATPs) as possible alternatives, such as advanced reduction processes (ARPs) and advanced oxidation-reduction processes (AORPs). Although they are not yet widely diffused, they may remove contaminants that are not readily treatable by AOPs, or offer better performance than the former. This paper presents an overview of some of the most common or promising ATPs for the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater, and their application, with discussion of their limitations and merits. Issues about technologies’ costs and future perspectives in the water sector are discussed.
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