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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Servant Leadership Survey: A Comparative Study across Eight Countries

Rotterdam School of Managemen, Erasmus University, Burg Oudlaan 50, Rotterdam 3000 DR, The Netherlands
NOVA School of Business and Economics, Lisboa 1099-032, Portugal
Faculty of Business, University Bifrost, Bifröst 311, Iceland
Faculty of Business, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland
Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education and Applied Psychology (FISPPA), University of Padua, Via Venezia n. 14, Padova PD 35131, Italy
Työterveyslaitos, PL 40 00251 Helsinki, Finland
School of Management, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich, Germany
Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations, Anadolu University, 26470 Tepebaşı/Eskişehir Province, Turkey
Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Autonomous University of Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kathleen A. Patterson
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 8;
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Servant Leadership, New Directions in Research, Theory and Practice)
This paper tests and confirms the cross-cultural equivalence of the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) in eight countries and languages: The Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Finland. A composite sample consisting of 5201 respondents from eight countries that all filled out the SLS was used. A three-step approach was adopted to test configural invariance, measurement equivalence, and structural equivalence. For the full 30-item version of the SLS, configural invariance and partial measurement equivalence were confirmed. Implications of these results for the use of the SLS within cross-cultural studies are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: servant leadership; cross-cultural; measurement equivalence servant leadership; cross-cultural; measurement equivalence
MDPI and ACS Style

Van Dierendonck, D.; Sousa, M.; Gunnarsdóttir, S.; Bobbio, A.; Hakanen, J.; Pircher Verdorfer, A.; Cihan Duyan, E.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, R. The Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Servant Leadership Survey: A Comparative Study across Eight Countries. Adm. Sci. 2017, 7, 8.

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