Self vs. Other Raters’ Assessment of Emotional Intelligence in Private and Public Hospitals: A Comparative Study
2. Emotional Intelligence
2.1. Emotional Intelligence Models
2.1.1. Ability Models
2.1.2. Trait Models
2.1.3. Mixed Models
2.2. Emotional Intelligence in Healthcare
3. Research Theoretical Model and Hypotheses Development
- Self-awareness consists of emotional self-awareness, self-assessment, and self-confidence.
- Social awareness dimension consists of empathy, service orientation, and organizational awareness.
- Self-management dimension consists of emotional self-control, transparency, adaptability, achievement, initiative, and optimism.
- Relationship management dimension consists of inspirational leadership, influence, developing others, change catalysts, teamwork and collaboration, and conflict management.
4. Research Methodology
4.1. Research Population and Sample
4.2. Data Collection Instrument
4.3. Validity and Reliability
6.1. The Levels of Emotional Intelligence among Managers of Private and Public Hospitals
6.2. The Differences between Self and Other Raters’ Assessments of the Levels of Emotional Intelligence among Managers in the Private Hospitals
6.3. The Differences between Self and Other Raters’ Assessments of the Levels of Emotional Intelligence among Managers in the Public Hospitals
Findings of the Study
8. Recommendations and Implications
- The need to raise emotional intelligence awareness in Jordan’s public and private hospitals through the development of specialized training programs (Aldaod et al. 2019; Al-Hamdan et al. 2017). Such training should be given for both managerial and non-managerial employees in ways that incorporate the concept of emotional intelligence and emphasize the practical aspect of it.
- There is a need to acknowledge that emotional intelligence can be learned and developed through training and practice as well (Daher 2015; Aldaod et al. 2019). This includes developing new criteria for recruiting managers in public and private hospitals in Jordan, considering emotional intelligence dimensions, and knowing that emotional intelligence is linked with superior leadership performance (Goleman 2001, 2017).
- The need to design and customize programs that help exploit more-practiced emotional intelligence dimensions of self-awareness and social awareness. Such dimensions should be considered as a foundation to improve less-practiced dimensions of self-management and relationship management for managers in public and private hospitals. This implies that emotional intelligence development is an incremental process (Goleman and Cherniss 2001; Cartwright and Pappas 2008; Daher 2015).
- The need to develop a 360-degree feedback process for managers in Jordanian public and private hospitals in which supervisors, peers, and subordinates provide direct reports on performance feedbacks. Thus, in addition to self-perception, managers can receive inputs and insights about how others in their professional context perceive and evaluate them. In this way, the gaps between self and others’ assessments of the managers can be minimized.
9. Limitations and Future Research
- Respondents were unfamiliar with emotional intelligence and its relationship with effective leadership and better organizational outcomes.
- Researchers faced some difficulties in distributing the questionnaires due to a lack of published data about the number of managers in Jordanian hospitals. Therefore, researchers were forced to go to each target hospital individually in cooperation with human resources managers in the selected hospitals. Then, the number of the conveniently located managers and raters was determined by the HR managers, while two private hospitals refused to participate due to privacy policies.
- Researchers found few previous studies that investigated the levels of managerial emotional intelligence and differences among managers and other raters in the public and private health sectors in Jordan.
- Conduct similar research in other governorates’ hospitals as well as hospitals with less than 100 beds, including more raters for a manager as each rater sees different aspects of the person (Wolff 2005). This can help reveal more interpretable results and more data to evaluate the gap between self and raters’ assessments of emotional intelligence.
- Replicate the study with an investigation of the emotional intelligence competencies within the emotional intelligence dimensions to address more areas of deficiency that might be uncovered.
- Understanding factors that influence the emotional intelligence of managers in Jordan’s public and private hospitals would be an important topic for future research.
- Replicate the study to reveal more comprehensive results on the overall levels of emotional intelligence for managerial and non-managerial employees in the Jordanian hospitals.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Study Contrast||Number of Items||Cronbachs’ Alpha Coefficient|
|Self-Management F 1||12||0.811|
|Self-Management F 2||5||0.944|
|Self-Management F 3||3||0.926|
|Self-Management F 4||2||0.843|
|Self-Management F 5||2||0.793|
|Relationship Management F 1||13||0.955|
|Relationship Management F 2||5||0.876|
|Relationship Management F 3||4||0.817|
|Relationship Management F 4||2||0.834|
|Overall Emotional Intelligence||72||0.966|
|Variable/Dimension||Private Mean||SD||Public Mean||SD||Leven’s Statistic F||Sig.|
|df||Mean Difference *|
|Equal variances assumed||−2.576||0.010||356||−0.097|
|Equal variances not assumed||−2.565||0.011||276.285||−0.097|
|Self-Awareness||Equal variances assumed||−1.89||0.060||356||−0.091|
|Equal variances not assumed||−1.802||0.073||240.076||−0.091|
|Self-Management||Equal variances assumed||−1.581||0.115||356||−0.068|
|Equal variances not assumed||−1.654||0.099||319.224||−0.068|
|Social Awareness||Equal variances assumed||−1.043||0.298||356||−0.055|
|Equal variances not assumed||−1.002||0.317||245.664||−0.055|
|Relationship Management||Equal variances assumed||−3.967||0.000||356||−0.174|
|Equal variances not assumed||−4.037||0.000||295.567||−0.174|
|Variable/Dimension||Self/Mean||SD||Raters/Mean||SD||Leven’s Statistic F||Sig.|
|Emotional Intelligence||Equal variances assumed||3.270||0.001||222||0.147|
|Equal variances not assumed||3.270||0.001||213.487||0.147|
|Self-Awareness||Equal variances assumed||2.155||0.032||222||0.117|
|Equal variances not assumed||2.155||0.032||220.218||0.117|
|Self-Management||Equal variances assumed||3.214||0.002||222||0.176|
|Equal variances not assumed||3.214||0.002||221.968||0.176|
|Social Awareness||Equal variances assumed||3.592||0.000||222||0.212|
|Equal variances not assumed||3.592||0.000||220.99||0.212|
|Relationship Management||Equal variances assumed||1.498||0.136||222||0.082|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.498||0.136||218.989||0.082|
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Sweis, R.J.; Aldaod, S.; Alsayyed, N.M.; Sukkari, L.S. Self vs. Other Raters’ Assessment of Emotional Intelligence in Private and Public Hospitals: A Comparative Study. Adm. Sci. 2022, 12, 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12040194
Sweis RJ, Aldaod S, Alsayyed NM, Sukkari LS. Self vs. Other Raters’ Assessment of Emotional Intelligence in Private and Public Hospitals: A Comparative Study. Administrative Sciences. 2022; 12(4):194. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12040194Chicago/Turabian Style
Sweis, Rateb Jalil, Sawsan Aldaod, Niveen Mazen Alsayyed, and Lilana Salem Sukkari. 2022. "Self vs. Other Raters’ Assessment of Emotional Intelligence in Private and Public Hospitals: A Comparative Study" Administrative Sciences 12, no. 4: 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12040194