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Open AccessArticle

Pine Stands as Bioindicators: Justification for Air Toxicity Monitoring in an Industrial Metropolis

1
Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, FRC KSC SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
2
Non-State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Siberian Institute of Business, Management and Psychology, 660069 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
3
Photobiology Lab, Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, FRC KSC SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
4
Biophysics Department, Siberian Federal University, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2020, 7(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7040028
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 5 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Monitoring of Pollutants)
Five permanent sample plots (SPs; 200–250 trees per plot) were established in middle-aged high-grade suburban pine stands near the industrial city of Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, Russia. Needle damage, inventory parameters of the stands, and the defense response of the stem phloem were evaluated annually for the years 2002–2019 and attributed to acute or chronic toxic exposures (creeping fire or industrial pollutants, respectively). The results form a basis for using trees as bioindicators. A newly elaborated stem lesion test was formed from a hypothesis on the upward sugar transport for the regeneration of an injured crown, based on Eschrich’s model of bidirectional sugar transport in the phloem. The formation of a phloem lesion was induced by inoculation of the stem with a mycelial extract of the ophiostomatoid fungus Ceratocystis laricicola. The lesion length and its shift relative to the inoculation hole were measured. An increase in the length of needles at early stages of stand weakening by pollutants was found to correspond to the hormesis model (Selye’s adaptation syndrome). A possibility of assessing the chronology of pollutant toxicity and the duration of the recovery period after creeping fire was shown. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental monitoring; pollutants; toxicity; creeping fire; high-grade pine stands; bioindicators environmental monitoring; pollutants; toxicity; creeping fire; high-grade pine stands; bioindicators
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Polyakova, G.; Pashenova, N.; Senashova, V.; Podolyak, N.; Kudryasheva, N. Pine Stands as Bioindicators: Justification for Air Toxicity Monitoring in an Industrial Metropolis. Environments 2020, 7, 28.

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