Next Article in Journal
Hydrological and Environmental Impact of Wastewater Treatment and Reuse on Zarqa River Basin in Jordan
Previous Article in Journal
In Situ Acoustic Treatment of Anaerobic Digesters to Improve Biogas Yields
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure: Some Observations and Considerations, Focusing on Some Italian Experiences, on Cancer Risk, and Primary Prevention
Open AccessArticle

Measurements of 22Na in the Atmosphere: Ground Level Activity Concentration Values from Wet and Dry Deposition Samples

Physical and Technological Risks Department, ARPA Piemonte, 10015 Ivrea, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2020, 7(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7020012
Received: 29 December 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 8 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Agents: Measurement Methods, Modelling and Mitigations)
Sodium-22 (22Na, half-life 2.603 years) is a cosmogenic radionuclide mainly produced in the stratosphere by nuclear spallation reactions of cosmic rays on 40Ar. Due to the very low concentration levels normally reached in the environment, 22Na poses no significant radioprotection threats: actually, the effective doses delivered to humans can hardly exceed a few nSv per year, a very negligible value. However, the measurements of this radionuclides can be very interesting for atmospheric circulation and climatic studies. Unfortunately, the difficulty of 22Na detection, due to its very low concentration levels, has prevented the gathering of large and widespread time series of this radionuclide. In this paper, a method for the retrospective measurements of 22Na in the atmosphere, starting from the gamma spectra (hyperpure germanium detectors (HPGe) detectors) of wet and dry deposition samples stored in our databases is proposed and validated. The method was applied to spectra samples gathered in the context of the Italian National Radioactivity Monitoring Network (RESORAD) and allowed the detection of the very low atmospheric activity concentration values of 22Na present at ground level. The results obtained with the new method are discussed and compared for validation with the available experimental values. Finally, some possible applications to environmental studies are also highlighted and suggested.
Keywords: 22Na; atmospheric activity concentration; HPGe gamma spectra; retrospective analysis 22Na; atmospheric activity concentration; HPGe gamma spectra; retrospective analysis
MDPI and ACS Style

Magnoni, M.; Bellina, L.; Bertino, S.; Bellotto, B.; Ghione, M.; Losana, M.C. Measurements of 22Na in the Atmosphere: Ground Level Activity Concentration Values from Wet and Dry Deposition Samples. Environments 2020, 7, 12.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop