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Open AccessArticle

A Review of Radioactive Wastes Production and Potential Environmental Releases at Experimental Nuclear Fusion Facilities

1
ENEA IRP-FUAC Institute of Radioprotection, 00044 Frascati, Italy
2
ENEA FSN-INMRI Institute of Metrology, 00123 Rome, Italy
3
ENEA FSN-FUSTEC-TEN, 00044 Frascati, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2020, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7010006
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 15 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Agents: Measurement Methods, Modelling and Mitigations)
The development of experimental nuclear fusion facilities and the systems connected to them currently involves the operation (or advanced design) of some large plants in the national territory. Devices such as neutron generators and plasma focus systems are also included. The machines developed to test the main components of these systems such as neutral beam generators (Neutral Beam Injector) and the experimental plants for thermonuclear fusion, mainly in the Tokamak configuration (toroidal geometry), are in the list. These applications are characterized by high neutron fluxes of high energy (typically 2.5 and 14 MeV from deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium fusion reactions, respectively). They involve the production of radionuclides in the components of the machines and in the fluids used for targets’ cooling and in the primary containments. In many cases, the atmosphere of the rooms containing these structures is activated and may be affected by the dispersion of powders that are more or less radioactive. The present work addresses the issues mentioned so far, taking into consideration the real cases relating to the devices and the facilities in operation, under construction, and in the advanced design phase. The conclusions highlight the critical aspects related to the management of these types of waste, as well as the low or very low environmental impact, from a radiological point of view, of the examined facilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: radioactive waste; nuclear fusion plants; environmental radioactive releases radioactive waste; nuclear fusion plants; environmental radioactive releases
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Sandri, S.; Contessa, G.M.; D’Arienzo, M.; Guardati, M.; Guarracino, M.; Poggi, C.; Villari, R. A Review of Radioactive Wastes Production and Potential Environmental Releases at Experimental Nuclear Fusion Facilities. Environments 2020, 7, 6.

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