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Carbon Footprint and Water Footprint of Electric Vehicles and Batteries Charging in View of Various Sources of Power Supply in the Czech Republic

1
ENET Centre, VSB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
2
Faculty of Transport, Silesian University of Technology, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6030038
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Engineering II)
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Abstract

In the light of recent developments regarding electric vehicle market share, we assess the carbon footprint and water footprint of electric vehicles and provide a comparative analysis of energy use from the grid to charge electric vehicle batteries in the Czech Republic. The analysis builds on the electricity generation forecast for the Czech Republic for 2015–2050. The impact of different sources of electricity supply on carbon and water footprints were analyzed based on electricity generation by source for the period. Within the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the carbon footprint was calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method, while the water footprint was determined by the Water Scarcity method. The computational LCA model was provided by the SimaPro v. 8.5 package with the Ecoinvent v. 3 database. The functional unit of study was running an electric vehicle over 100 km. The system boundary covered an electric vehicle life cycle from cradle to grave. For the analysis, we chose a vehicle powered by a lithium-ion battery with assumed consumption 19.9 kWh/100 km. The results show that electricity generated to charge electric vehicle batteries is the main determinant of carbon and water footprints related to electric vehicles in the Czech Republic. Another important factor is passenger car production. Nuclear power is the main determinant of the water footprint for the current and future electric vehicle charging, while, currently, lignite and hard coal are the main determinants of carbon footprint. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; environment assessment; carbon footprint; water footprint; Czech Republic electric vehicles; environment assessment; carbon footprint; water footprint; Czech Republic
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Jursova, S.; Burchart-Korol, D.; Pustejovska, P. Carbon Footprint and Water Footprint of Electric Vehicles and Batteries Charging in View of Various Sources of Power Supply in the Czech Republic. Environments 2019, 6, 38.

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