How Inter-Basin Transfer of Water Alters Basin Water Stress Used for Water Footprint Characterization
AbstractWater footprint assessments contribute to a better understanding of potential environmental impacts related to water and have become essential in water management. The methodologies for characterizing such assessments, however, usually fail to reflect temporal and spatial variations at local scales. In this paper, we employ four widely-used characterization factors, which were originally developed with global estimates of water demand and availability, to evaluate the impact that inter-basin transfer (IBT) of water has on water risk assessments and, consequently, on the evaluation of the soundness of water cycle. The study was conducted for two major river basins in Japan, where diversion channels were built to move water from the Tone river basin to the Arakawa river basin. Considering IBT, the available water in the Arakawa river basin increases a 45%, reducing the characterization factors a 44% on average and denoting their tendency to overestimate the risk in this basin, while the Tone river basin increased the characterization factors a 28% on average by IBT. Moreover, with a simple example we show how ambiguity in the definition of some characterization factors may cause significant changes in the result of the assessments. Finally, we concluded that local water footprint characterization can be more helpful in local assessment of water resources if the results are unanimous, Targetable, Replicable, Ameliorable, Comparable, and Engageable (uTRACE). View Full-Text
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Yano, S.; Okazumi, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nakamura, K.; Kanayama, T.; Ogawada, D.; Matsumura, A.; Gomez-Garcia, M.; Oki, T. How Inter-Basin Transfer of Water Alters Basin Water Stress Used for Water Footprint Characterization. Environments 2018, 5, 105.
Yano S, Okazumi T, Iwasaki Y, Yamaguchi M, Nakamura K, Kanayama T, Ogawada D, Matsumura A, Gomez-Garcia M, Oki T. How Inter-Basin Transfer of Water Alters Basin Water Stress Used for Water Footprint Characterization. Environments. 2018; 5(9):105.Chicago/Turabian Style
Yano, Shinjiro; Okazumi, Toshio; Iwasaki, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kenichi; Kanayama, Takuhiro; Ogawada, Daikichi; Matsumura, Akiko; Gomez-Garcia, Martin; Oki, Taikan. 2018. "How Inter-Basin Transfer of Water Alters Basin Water Stress Used for Water Footprint Characterization." Environments 5, no. 9: 105.
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