Next Article in Journal
Trace Metal Modelling of a Complex River Basin Using the Suite of Models Integrated in the OpenMI Platform
Next Article in Special Issue
Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Water Quality in Drought Prone Areas of Pune and Satara Districts of Maharashtra, India
Previous Article in Journal
Hepatobiliary-Related Outcomes in US Adults Exposed to Lead
Previous Article in Special Issue
Management Recommendations for Improving Decentralized Wastewater Treatment by the Food and Beverage Industries in Nigeria
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Environments 2018, 5(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5040047

Efficient Bacteria Inactivation by Ultrasound in Municipal Wastewater

1
CONACyT-Instituto Tecnológico de Culiacán; Culiacán 80220, Mexico
2
Universidad Politécnica del Estado de Morelos, Jiutepec, Morelos 62550, Mexico
3
Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos 62550, Mexico
4
Coordinación de Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Tecnológica de Culiacán, Culiacán 80220, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 1 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Contamination, Remediation and Conservation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1347 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

The reuse of treated wastewaters could contribute to reducing water stress. In this research, ultrasound application on bacterial inactivation in municipal wastewater (MWW) was evaluated. Total and fecal coliforms were used as standard fecal indicators; volatile suspended solids (VSS) were analyzed too. Samples were taken from the effluent of secondary clarifiers. In addition, inactivation tests were carried out on pure cultures of E. coli (EC) and B. subtilis (BS). Sonication was performed at 20 kHz, 35% amplitude and 600 W/L for 15, 30 and 45 min. After 15 min of sonication, bacterial density was reduced by 1.85 Log10 MPN/100 mL for EC and 3.16 Log10 CFU/mL for BS. After 30 min, no CFU/mL of BS were observed in MWW and, after 45 min, the reduction of total and fecal coliforms was practically 6.45 Log10 MPN/100mL. Inactivation mechanism was made by cavitation, which causes irreversible damage to the cell wall. Although high bacterial densities were employed, percentages of inactivation >99% were reached at 45 min. This research contributes to the implementation of ultrasound as a disinfection technique with high potential due to its high efficiency without producing byproducts. In fact, the water meets the guidelines for reuse in direct human contact services. View Full-Text
Keywords: cavitation; wastewater; pathogenic contamination; ultrasonic disinfection cavitation; wastewater; pathogenic contamination; ultrasonic disinfection
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Amabilis-Sosa, L.E.; Vázquez-López, M.; Rojas, J.L.G.; Roé-Sosa, A.; Moeller-Chávez, G.E. Efficient Bacteria Inactivation by Ultrasound in Municipal Wastewater. Environments 2018, 5, 47.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Environments EISSN 2076-3298 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top