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Adoption and the Role of Fertilizer Trees and Shrubs as a Climate Smart Agriculture Practice: The Case of Salima District in Malawi

1
Department of Forestry, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Bunda Campus), Lilongwe P.O Box 219, Malawi
2
Centre for Agricultural Research and Development, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Bunda Campus), Lilongwe P.O Box 219, Malawi
3
Department of Geography, Environment, and Spatial Sciences; Michigan State University, 673 Auditorium Rd., Geography Building Room 123, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2018, 5(11), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5110122
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Ecosystem Services)
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Abstract

Fertilizer trees and shrubs can improve degraded soil and avert the impacts of climate change on smallholder farmers in Malawi. This paper analyses the roles of fertilizer trees and shrubs and factors that determine adoption, as well as the intensity of use of fertilizer on trees and shrubs in maize-based farming systems using the Tobit model. A household survey involving 250 smallholder farmers was conducted in Salima district, Malawi. The analysis shows that adopters of fertilizer trees and shrubs considered fertility improvement, shade, source of food and erosion control as main roles of fertilizer trees and shrubs. The Tobit model shows that households with relatively more land are more likely to adopt fertilizer trees and shrubs than those with small land sizes. Adoption is higher among farmers who had been exposed to fertilizer trees and shrubs for longer periods than others had. Land tenure, education and availability of labor also influence the adoption of fertilizer trees and shrubs. Results further show that household and farm characteristics and availability of extension services explain the current adoption rates of tree-fertilizer technologies. Our findings can guide effective targeting of farmers to ensure higher adoption and sustainability of fertilizer-tree and shrub technology for climate-smart agriculture among the smallholder farmers. View Full-Text
Keywords: fertilizer trees and shrubs; Tobit model; adoption; climate change fertilizer trees and shrubs; Tobit model; adoption; climate change
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Musa, F.B.; Kamoto, J.F.M.; Jumbe, C.B.L.; Zulu, L.C. Adoption and the Role of Fertilizer Trees and Shrubs as a Climate Smart Agriculture Practice: The Case of Salima District in Malawi. Environments 2018, 5, 122.

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