Next Article in Journal
Biological Treatment by Active Sludge with High Biomass Concentration at Laboratory Scale for Mixed Inflow of Sunflower Oil and Saccharose
Next Article in Special Issue
Rapid Urban Growth in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Monitoring Land Use Land Cover Dynamics of a Himalayan City with Landsat Imageries
Previous Article in Journal
Applicability of a Freundlich-Like Model for Plant Uptake at an Industrial Contaminated Site with a High Variable Arsenic Concentration
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Environments 2017, 4(4), 68;

Fine-Tuning of a Protected Area Effectiveness Evaluation Tool: Implementation on Two Emblematic Spanish National Parks

Institute of Economy, Geography and Demography, Spanish National Research Council (IEGD-CSIC), Associated Unit GEOLAB. C/Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid, Spain
European Topic Centre-Universidad of Malaga, Andalucía Tech, University of Malaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
Aragonese University Research Institute on Environmental Science, Department of Geography and Territorial Management, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Territorial Management)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2030 KB, uploaded 27 September 2017]   |  


As global biodiversity trends worsen, protected area (PA) environmental effectiveness needs to be assessed to identify strengths and areas to improve. Through a participatory process including PA managers and scientists, we refined the System for the Integrated Assessment of Protected Areas (SIAPA), in order to increase its legitimacy, credibility and salience to end users in Spain. Then, we tested the optimised version of the SIAPA on two emblematic Spanish national parks (NPs): Ordesa y Monte Perdido NP (Ordesa NP) and Sierra de Guadarrama NP (Guadarrama NP). PA managers and scientists largely coincided in the ratings of SIAPA’s indicators and indices. Collaboration with Ordesa NP’s managers was regular, allowing a nearly complete evaluation of the NP. However, greater collaboration between PA managers and scientists remains a priority in Guadarrama NP. Results show that potential effectiveness is moderate for Ordesa NP and low for Guadarrama NP, according to the indicators that could be evaluated. For Ordesa NP, lack of data on focal habitats and other focal features determined a deficient valuation of its conservation state, although the remaining indicators in that category showed adequate or moderate values. The compilation of those data should be overriding in the NP. In contrast, only climate change posed a serious threat in that NP. The social perception and valuation of both NPs was good, suggesting broad support from local populations and eased management. View Full-Text
Keywords: reserve; environmental sustainability; assessment; indicator; index; SIAPA reserve; environmental sustainability; assessment; indicator; index; SIAPA

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D.; Ibarra, P.; Martínez-Vega, J.; Echeverría, M.; Echavarría, P. Fine-Tuning of a Protected Area Effectiveness Evaluation Tool: Implementation on Two Emblematic Spanish National Parks. Environments 2017, 4, 68.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Environments EISSN 2076-3298 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top