Some evidence from the literature suggests that postnatal acetaminophen exposure may be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a data set obtained from a previous study that was derived from an Internet-based survey among parents on 1515 children from the US, an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and gender-specific aORs for doses of postnatal acetaminophen provided before age two were calculated against the outcome of ASD. Separately, parental uncertainty on the number of doses of acetaminophen provided was analyzed. A population attributable fraction (PAF) associated with postnatal acetaminophen exposure before age two for ASD among males was also estimated. Postnatal acetaminophen exposure, measured in doses before age two, was found to be associated with ASD among male children (aOR 1.023, CI 1.005–1.043, p
= 0.020*), and parental uncertainty on the number of doses of acetaminophen provided before age two was also found to be associated with ASD. Using this data set, the PAF associated with postnatal acetaminophen was estimated to be about 40% of the risk of ASD among male children in the US. These results suggest the possibility that postnatal acetaminophen may be a significant contributor to the risk of ASD among males in the US.
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