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Myeloperoxidase as an Active Disease Biomarker: Recent Biochemical and Pathological Perspectives

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, AlQassim, P.O. Box 6699, Buraidah 51452, Saudi Arabia
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Med. Sci. 2018, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6020033
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) belongs to the family of heme-containing peroxidases, produced mostly from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The active enzyme (150 kDa) is the product of the MPO gene located on long arm of chromosome 17. The primary gene product undergoes several modifications, such as the removal of introns and signal peptides, and leads to the formation of enzymatically inactive glycosylated apoproMPO which complexes with chaperons, producing inactive proMPO by the insertion of a heme moiety. The active enzyme is a homodimer of heavy and light chain protomers. This enzyme is released into the extracellular fluid after oxidative stress and different inflammatory responses. Myeloperoxidase is the only type of peroxidase that uses H2O2 to oxidize several halides and pseudohalides to form different hypohalous acids. So, the antibacterial activities of MPO involve the production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Controlled MPO release at the site of infection is of prime importance for its efficient activities. Any uncontrolled degranulation exaggerates the inflammation and can also lead to tissue damage even in absence of inflammation. Several types of tissue injuries and the pathogenesis of several other major chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes, and cancer have been reported to be linked with MPO-derived oxidants. Thus, the enhanced level of MPO activity is one of the best diagnostic tools of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers among these commonly-occurring diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: myeloperoxidase; leukocytes; inflammation; oxidative stress; chronic diseases; disease biomarker myeloperoxidase; leukocytes; inflammation; oxidative stress; chronic diseases; disease biomarker
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Khan, A.A.; Alsahli, M.A.; Rahmani, A.H. Myeloperoxidase as an Active Disease Biomarker: Recent Biochemical and Pathological Perspectives. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 33.

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