Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common neoplasm that occurs in the kidney and is marked by a unique biology, with a long history of poor response to conventional cancer treatments. In the past few years, there have been significant advancements to understand the biology of RCC. This has led to the introduction of novel targeted therapies in the management of patients with metastatic disease. Patients treated with targeted therapies for RCC had shown positive impact on overall survival, however, no cure is possible and patients need to undergo treatment for long periods of time, which raises challenges to manage the associated adverse events. Moreover, many patients may not respond to it and even response may not last long enough in the responders. Many inhibitors of the Mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway are currently being used in treatment of advanced RCC. Studies showed that inhibitions of mTOR pathways induce Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) escape cell death and cells become resistant to mTOR inhibitors. Because of this, there is a need to inhibit both pathways with their inhibitors comparatively for a better outcome and treatment of patients with RCC.
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