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Combination of mTOR and MAPK Inhibitors—A Potential Way to Treat Renal Cell Carcinoma

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Department of Urology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160012, India
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Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand, India
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Department of Phytochemistry, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand, India
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Vice Chancellor, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand, India
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Department of Hepatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160012, India
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Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160012, India
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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sibaji Sarkar
Med Sci (Basel) 2016, 4(4), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci4040016
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 17 September 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Therapy and Cancer: Current Developments)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common neoplasm that occurs in the kidney and is marked by a unique biology, with a long history of poor response to conventional cancer treatments. In the past few years, there have been significant advancements to understand the biology of RCC. This has led to the introduction of novel targeted therapies in the management of patients with metastatic disease. Patients treated with targeted therapies for RCC had shown positive impact on overall survival, however, no cure is possible and patients need to undergo treatment for long periods of time, which raises challenges to manage the associated adverse events. Moreover, many patients may not respond to it and even response may not last long enough in the responders. Many inhibitors of the Mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway are currently being used in treatment of advanced RCC. Studies showed that inhibitions of mTOR pathways induce Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) escape cell death and cells become resistant to mTOR inhibitors. Because of this, there is a need to inhibit both pathways with their inhibitors comparatively for a better outcome and treatment of patients with RCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal cell carcinoma; mammalian target of rapamycin; mitogen activated protein kinase; target therapy renal cell carcinoma; mammalian target of rapamycin; mitogen activated protein kinase; target therapy
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Chauhan, A.; Semwal, D.K.; Mishra, S.P.; Goyal, S.; Marathe, R.; Semwal, R.B. Combination of mTOR and MAPK Inhibitors—A Potential Way to Treat Renal Cell Carcinoma. Med Sci (Basel) 2016, 4, 16.

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