Next Article in Journal
Combination of mTOR and MAPK Inhibitors—A Potential Way to Treat Renal Cell Carcinoma
Previous Article in Journal
Neuroprotection by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced HRD1 and Chaperones: Possible Therapeutic Targets for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Med. Sci. 2016, 4(3), 15;

Androgen Receptor Expression in Thai Breast Cancer Patients

Division of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
Center of Excellence on Environmental Health, Toxicology and Management of Chemicals, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nontaburi 11000, Thailand
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht NL-3508, The Netherlands
Department of Surgery, Charoenkrung Pracharuk Hospital, Bangkok 10120, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hung-Yun Lin
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
PDF [1680 KB, uploaded 14 September 2016]
  |     |  


The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and related factors of androgen receptor (AR) expression in Thai breast cancer patients. A descriptive study was done in 95 patients, who were admitted to Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital, Bangkok (2011–2013). Statistical relationships were examined between AR protein expression, tumor status, and patient characteristics. Compared with those from Western countries, ethnic Thai patients were younger at age of diagnosis and had a higher proliferative index (high Ki-67 expression), which indicates unfavorable prognosis. In addition, 91% of the Thai breast tumors that were positive for any of the following receptors, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) also expressed the AR protein, while in triple negative breast tumors only 33% were AR positive. ER and PR expression was positively related with AR expression, while AR expression was inversely correlated to Ki-67 expression. AR status was strongly correlated with ER and PR status in Thai patients. There is an inverse relationship between Ki-67 and AR, which suggests that AR may be a prognostic factor for breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; androgens; androgen receptors breast cancer; androgens; androgen receptors

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chottanapund, S.; Van Duursen, M.B.M.; Ratchaworapong, K.; Navasumrit, P.; Ruchirawat, M.; Van den Berg, M. Androgen Receptor Expression in Thai Breast Cancer Patients. Med. Sci. 2016, 4, 15.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Med. Sci. EISSN 2076-3271 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top