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Cross-Country Assessment of H-SAF Snow Products by Sentinel-2 Imagery Validated against In-Situ Observations and Webcam Photography

1
CIMA Research Foundation, 17100 Savona, Italy
2
Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), 00560 Helsinki, Finland
3
Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Çankırı Karatekin University, Çankırı 18200, Turkey
4
National Civil Protection Department, 00189 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: IRSTEA, Hydrology Research Group, UR HYCAR, 92761 Antony, France.
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030129
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Snow and Its Applications)
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Abstract

Information on snow properties is of critical relevance for a wide range of scientific studies and operational applications, mainly for hydrological purposes. However, the ground-based monitoring of snow dynamics is a challenging task, especially over complex topography and under harsh environmental conditions. Remote sensing is a powerful resource providing snow observations at a large scale. This study addresses the potential of using Sentinel-2 high-resolution imagery to assess moderate-resolution snow products, namely H10—Snow detection (SN-OBS-1) and H12—Effective snow cover (SN-OBS-3) supplied by the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) project of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). With the aim of investigating the reliability of reference data, the consistency of Sentinel-2 observations is evaluated against both in-situ snow measurements and webcam digital imagery. The study area encompasses three different regions, located in Finland, the Italian Alps and Turkey, to comprehensively analyze the selected satellite products over both mountainous and flat areas having different snow seasonality. The results over the winter seasons 2016/17 and 2017/18 show a satisfying agreement between Sentinel-2 data and ground-based observations, both in terms of snow extent and fractional snow cover. H-SAF products prove to be consistent with the high-resolution imagery, especially over flat areas. Indeed, while vegetation only slightly affects the detection of snow cover, the complex topography more strongly impacts product performances. View Full-Text
Keywords: snow cover; fractional snow cover; Sentinel-2; H-SAF; webcam photography snow cover; fractional snow cover; Sentinel-2; H-SAF; webcam photography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Piazzi, G.; Tanis, C.M.; Kuter, S.; Simsek, B.; Puca, S.; Toniazzo, A.; Takala, M.; Akyürek, Z.; Gabellani, S.; Arslan, A.N. Cross-Country Assessment of H-SAF Snow Products by Sentinel-2 Imagery Validated against In-Situ Observations and Webcam Photography. Geosciences 2019, 9, 129.

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