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Open AccessArticle

Study and Characterization of Environmental Deposition on Marble and Surrogate Substrates at a Monumental Heritage Site

Dipartimento di Chimica, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano, Italy
Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2018, 8(9), 349;
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
In this study, the results of the field exposure activity conducted between 2014 and 2017 on the façade of the Milano cathedral (Italy) are reported. The main research aim was to characterize environmental deposition in real exposure conditions and for this purpose, both stone substrates (Candoglia marble) and surrogate substrates (quartz fibre filters) were exposed on the cathedral façade in two sites at different heights. A complete chemical characterization has been performed on quartz filters and marble substrates, i.e., quantification of the deposited aerosol particulate matter (PM) and of the main ions. On quartz filters, the carbonaceous component of deposits was also investigated, as well as the color change induced by soiling, by means of colorimetric measurements. The combined approach exploiting marble and surrogate substrates seems to be a suitable monitoring strategy, although some aspects should be taken into account. In particular, differences in the deposits composition have been highlighted mainly depending on the type of substrate. The environmental data related to atmospheric pollution in Milan for the same period have also been considered but no direct correlations were found between some atmospheric precursors and their related ions in solid deposits. View Full-Text
Keywords: depositions on marble; cultural heritage; exposure tests depositions on marble; cultural heritage; exposure tests
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Fermo, P.; Goidanich, S.; Comite, V.; Toniolo, L.; Gulotta, D. Study and Characterization of Environmental Deposition on Marble and Surrogate Substrates at a Monumental Heritage Site. Geosciences 2018, 8, 349.

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