Next Article in Journal
Observing Geohazards from Space
Next Article in Special Issue
ENSO Index-Based Insurance for Agricultural Protection in Southern Peru
Previous Article in Journal
Probabilistic Approach to Provide Scenarios of Earthquake-Induced Slope Failures (PARSIFAL) Applied to the Alcoy Basin (South Spain)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Developing a Remotely Sensed Drought Monitoring Indicator for Morocco
Open AccessArticle

Apprehensive Drought Characteristics over Iraq: Results of a Multidecadal Spatiotemporal Assessment

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2018, 8(2), 58;
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drought Monitoring and Prediction)
Drought is an extreme climate phenomenon that happens slowly and periodically threatens the environmental and socio-economic sectors. Iraq is one of the countries in the Middle East that has been dealing with serious drought-related issues in the 21st century. Here, we investigate meteorological drought across Iraq from 1948 to 2009 at 0.25° spatial resolution. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) has been utilized as a multi-scalar drought index accounting for the effects of temperature variability on drought. Four of the main characteristics of drought including extent, intensity, frequency and duration are studied and the associated spatiotemporal patterns are investigated for each case. Results revealed a significant drought exacerbation over Iraq during the period of 1998–2009. Two significant drought periods of 1998–1999 and 2007–2008 are identified during which severe to extreme droughts covered about 87% and 82% of Iraq, respectively. Analyzing the trends of drought intensity reveals that the central and southwestern parts of Iraq have experienced aggravated intensifying patterns among other regions. In general, droughts are found to be more frequent but shorter at the western, central and southeastern parts of Iraq. View Full-Text
Keywords: drought; SPEI; Middle East; Iraq; GLDAS drought; SPEI; Middle East; Iraq; GLDAS
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hameed, M.; Ahmadalipour, A.; Moradkhani, H. Apprehensive Drought Characteristics over Iraq: Results of a Multidecadal Spatiotemporal Assessment. Geosciences 2018, 8, 58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop